Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov – Russian physiologist given credit for classical conditioning • Classical conditioning is reacting in a certain way to something (a stimulus) that one would not originally have responded to . • Defined: a learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus
Classical Conditioning • Starts with a neutral stimulus (something that you normally wouldn’t respond to); In our experiment: the bellIn Pavlov’s experiment: the tuning fork • Take the neutral stimulus and turn it into a conditioned stimulus (you now want a reaction to take place) • Conditioned stimulus – neutral event that causes a response after a time of trainingIn our experiment: the bellIn Pavlov’s experiment: the tuning fork
Classical Conditioning • You also have an unconditioned response (it’s called unconditioned because this happens naturally) based on an unconditioned stimulus • Unconditioned response (UCR) – natural response to somethingIn our experiment: mouth water/ salivationIn Pavlov’s experiment: mouth water/ salivation
Classical Conditioning • Now, you take your unconditioned stimulus (something that will have a certain response without training)and combine it with your conditioned stimulusIn our experiment: Fun DipIn Pavlov’s experiment: meat • In other words, Fun Dip (sour taste) causes salivation, now we want to make the bell cause salivation.
Classical Conditioning • Through repetition, you present the conditioned stimulus (bell) with the unconditioned stimulus (lemonade) to get the response (salivation). • Eventually, if you take away the unconditioned stimulus (lemonade) and just used the conditioned stimulus (bell) you should get your conditioned response (salivation).
Classical Conditioning • Generalization – responding to something similar to the conditioned stimulus (alarm/buzzing instead of a bell) • Discrimination – being able to tell the difference between the conditioned stimulus and the similar one • Extinction – when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus, gradually the unconditioned response will fade (no more lemonade at sound of bell, no salivating)
Classical Conditioning - Examples • John Watson – Little Albert experiment - 11 month old baby - played with lab rats - loud sound every time rats around - Albert associates rats with loud sounds - Albert terrified of rats. SO MEAN.
Classical Conditioning - Examples • My dad – the veterinarian. • Method to keep cats inside: throw them out in the snow when they went near the door repeatedly until they no longer went near the door • Method to keep cats out of Christmas tree: shock pads. Some real, some fake (possible generalization/ discrimination? Nope, they weren’t smart enough)
Classical Conditioning - Examples • Method to keep dog from barking obnoxiously: shock collar. Works until the dog jumps in the pool.
Classical Conditioning - Examples • Taste Aversion - • Eating certain foods that have “made you sick” (even though it could have been something else) – no longer want to eat those, or feel sick at the thought/sight/smell of that particular food. • Usually after awhile extinction takes place
Operant Conditioning • BF Skinner • Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence • In other words, operant conditioning is learning from the consequences of behavior (both good and bad)
Difference from Classical Conditioning • In classical conditioning, the stimuli are presented regardless of the participant’s behavior, whereas in operant conditioning the participant behaves a certain way first, then gets some sort of outcome. • Classical – Behavior after • Operant – Behavior first
Reinforcement • Anything that will increased the likelihood that a certain behavior will be repeated • Positive & Negative Reinforcement1. Positive – a reward or treat that encourages a certain behavior.Ex. – Kindergarten classes2. Negative – when something unpleasant is taken away after a certain behavior.Ex. – Alarm Clock
Reinforcement • Two Types of Reinforcers: 1. Primary – naturally rewarding (such as food, water, etc); it satisfies a biological need2. Secondary – something that is rewarding when it is paired with a primary reinforcer (money – rewarding because you use it to BUY food, water, etc.)
Negative Reinforcement • Removing or preventing a painful stimulus • Ex. Rock stuck in shoe • Two Types: • Escape – a person’s actions remove or terminate the unwanted stimulus • Avoidance – a person’s actions prevent the unwanted stimulus before it starts
Schedules of Reinforcement • Fixed Ratio – reinforcement after a fixed number of responses (being paid for a certain number of work) • Variable Ratio – reinforcement after varying number of responses (slot machine) • Fixed Interval – reinforcement of first response after a fix amount of time has passed (pay check) • Variable Interval – reinforcement of first response after varying amounts of time (busy signal)
Shaping • Technique in which the desired behavior is “molded” by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then requiring ever-closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward • Example – Dolphin Training
Punishment • Unpleasant consequence occurs and decreases the frequency of the behavior that produced it. • THIS IS NOT NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT.
Social Learning • Learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others • Albert Bandura • Two types: • Cognitive learning • Modeling
Cognitive Learning • Cognitive = thinking • Cognitive learning = thinking about information and learning from it • Two types : • Latent learning • Learned helplessness
Latent Learning • Mentally processing information without even realizing it • Ex. 200/700 building stairs are closed • In other words, you unintentionally store information in your head that you use at a later time • Cognitive map – mental picture created of places, things, events
Learned Helplessness • Condition when after repeated attempts to control situations don’t work, a person believes that the situation is uncontrollable • Three components: • Stability – permanent/temporary reasons • Globality – specific/global reasons • Internality – internal/external reasons
Modeling • Modeling – following the example of others, copying the behavior of others (or NOT) • Observational learning – watching someone “perform” and then later using those observations to do the same thing • Disinhibition – watching someone do a threatening activity; deciding if it’s ok to do as well