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Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

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Classical Conditioning

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  1. Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning • organism comes to associate two stimuli • a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus

  2. Classical Conditioning

  3. Pavlov’s Dogs • Pavlov was studying how dogs salivated • He noted that when presented with food, salivation was automatic (unconditioned response) • If he rang a bell while he gave the food, after a while the bell alone would elicit the same response as the unconditioned one(conditioned response.) • In other words, we can LEARN BEHAVIORS that previously were thought out of out our control

  4. Classical Conditioning Terms Unconditioned Stimulus– A stimulus that naturally elicits a specific response Unconditioned Response– A response that naturally follows a specific stimulus Conditioned Stimulus— A stimulus that elicits a response it naturally has no connection to Conditioned Response– A response to a stimulus that does not occur naturally

  5. Pavlov’s Experiments

  6. Classical Conditioning • Acquisition • the learning process when the response is first established • Extinction • diminishing of a CR • in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS • in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced

  7. Classical Conditioning • Spontaneous Recovery • reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR

  8. Classical Conditioning • Discrimination • in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS • Generalization • tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses

  9. Classical Conditioning • Higher Order Conditioning • When you pair another neutral stimulus with the neutral stimulus which will then elicit the same response not because it is conditioned, but because it is associated • Learned Helplessness • Example of a cognitive processes •  is the condition of a human or animal that has learned to behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards. • Explains how a perceived absence of control over the outcome of a situation can lead to depression and mental illness • Garcia Principle • Conditioned taste Aversion • Example of a biological predisposition

  10. Biopsychosocial Influences on Learning

  11. Pavlov’s Legacy • Classical conditioning applies to other organisms • Showed how to study a topic scientifically

  12. Operant Conditioning

  13. Operant Conditioning • Uses rewards and punishments to promote or deter a behavior • We learn to associate a response and its consequences

  14. Operant Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment • Law of Effect • Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

  15. Operant Conditioning • Operant Behavior • operates (acts) on environment • produces consequences • Respondent Behavior • occurs as an automatic response to stimulus • behavior learned through classical conditioning

  16. Operant Chamber • Skinner Box • chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer • contains devices to record responses

  17. Operant Conditioning • Reinforcer • any event that strengthens the behavior it follows • Shaping • operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal

  18. Operant Conditioning

  19. Principles of Reinforcement • Primary Reinforcer • innately reinforcing stimulus • i.e., satisfies a biological need • Conditioned Reinforcer • stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer • secondary reinforcer

  20. Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous Reinforcement • reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs • Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement • reinforcing a response only part of the time • results in slower acquisition • greater resistance to extinction

  21. Schedules of Reinforcement • Fixed Ratio (FR) • reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses • faster you respond the more rewards you get • different ratios • very high rate of responding • like piecework pay

  22. Schedules of Reinforcement • Variable Ratio (VR) • reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses • average ratios • like gambling, fishing • very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability

  23. Schedules of Reinforcement • Fixed Interval (FI) • reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed • response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near

  24. Schedules of Reinforcement • Variable Interval (VI) • reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals • produces slow steady responding • like pop quiz

  25. Skinner’s ExperimentsReinforcement Schedules

  26. Punishment • Punishment • aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows • powerful controller of unwanted behavior

  27. Punishment

  28. Skinner’s ExperimentsPunishment • Negatives of using punishment • Punished behavior is suppressed not forgotten • Punishment teaches discrimination • Punishment can teach fear • Physical punishment may increase aggression

  29. Cognition and Operant Conditioning • Cognitive Map • mental representation of the layout of one’s environment • Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it • Latent Learning • learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

  30. Cognition and Operant Conditioning • Overjustification Effect • the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do • the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task

  31. Cognition and Operant Conditioning • Intrinsic Motivation • Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective • Extrinsic Motivation • Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

  32. Extending Skinner’s UnderstandingBiological Predispositions • Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive

  33. Skinner’s LegacyApplications of Operant Conditioning • At school • In sports • At home • For self-improvement

  34. Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning • Similarities between classical and operant conditioning • Differences between classical and operant conditioning

  35. Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning