Classical Conditioning Used to demonstrate how responses are acquired through classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories. However, it was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson. Sovfoto Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does not.
Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR)
Ivan Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n): A. primary reinforcer. B. unconditional stimulus. C. immediate reinforcer. D. conditioned stimulus.
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n): A. negative reinforcer. B. conditioned stimulus. C. conditioned reinforcer. D. unconditioned stimulus.
Martin likes to shower in the men’s locker room after working out. During a shower he hears a toilet flushing nearby. Suddenly boiling hot water comes out of the showerhead, causing Martin serious discomfort. Later on in the shower, he hears another toilet flush and he immediately jumps out from under the showerhead. In this scenario, what is the unconditioned response (UR)? A. jumping out of the shower B. sound of the toilet flushing C. pain avoidance D. boiling hot water
Brian ate a tuna salad sandwich that had become tainted from being in the sun too long. Not long after eating, Brian became extremely nauseated and felt awful. After that, even the sight of a tuna sandwich caused Brian to feel nauseated. In this scenario, what is the conditioned response (CR)? A. tuna B. nausea C. mayonnaise D. sight of any sandwich
Acquisition Acquisition is the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place. In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus. The time in between the two stimuli should be about half a second.
Acquisition The CS needs to come half a second before the US for acquisition to occur.
Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates: A. the law of effect. B. spontaneous recovery. C. respondent behavior. D. associative learning.
Extinction When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction.
ACTIVITY • Give each student a cup of powder, then choose some neutral stimulus to serve as a conditioned stimulus. The Cogans use the word “Pavlov.” • Instruct your students to moisten the tip of their index finger and to watch for your signal (for example, you will raise your arm) to dip their finger into the powder and then put it into their mouth. Also inform them that from time to time you will say the words “test trial” instead of giving the signal; when they hear those words, they should not dip into the powder but close their eyes and concentrate on their experience.
Present the CS and, after a small delay (0.5 to 1.5 seconds), give the signal for your students to dip into the lemonade powder. • Repeat trials at 10- to 15-second intervals, with a test trial after every 10 conditioning trials. • After each test trial ask for a show of hands of those who salivated. • When all or most of the students have demonstrated conditioning, begin extinction using the same test-trial procedure (in which you state on successive trials, “Pavlov . . . test trial”). Extinction should be completed during the same class period.