Classical Conditioning More Principles of Learning
Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.
First-Order and Second-Order Conditioning • First Order Conditioning. • Bell + meat = salivation. • Bell = Salivation. • Second Order Conditioning • (After first order conditioning has occurred) • Light + Bell = Salivation. • Light = Salivation.
Learned Taste Aversions • When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredible strong. • Even when food and sickness are hours apart. • Food must be salient (noticeable.)
Taste Aversions (cont.) • Psychologist John Garcia • Conducted a series of controlled experiments to demonstrate that taste aversions could be produced in laboratory rats. • Basic experiment: • Rats drank saccharin-flavored water (NS) • Few hours later, rats were drugged (US) producing gastrointestinal distress (UR) • After recovering from illness, rats refused to drink the saccharin-flavored water.
Garcia & Taste Aversions Outcomes • Experiment challenged basic principles of CC: • The conditioning only required a single pairing • The stimuli (NS & US) were separated by hours (not secs) • Research demonstrates that there are important biological constraints on conditioning