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America’s Second War of Independence?. Events leading up to the War of 1812 French Revolution, 1789 Washington Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793 British seizure of the Delaware, 1794 Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796. XYZ Affair, 1797 Louisiana Purchase, 1803

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Events leading up to the War of 1812

  • French Revolution, 1789
  • Washington Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793
  • British seizure of the Delaware, 1794
  • Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796

XYZ Affair, 1797

  • Louisiana Purchase, 1803
  • British Orders in Council, 1806-blockaded Europe

Napoleon’s Continental System, 1807

  • -embargo of England
  • Chesapeake-Leopard Incident, 1807 -start to a united nation

Trade Acts dealing with the Br.-Fr. Issue

  • Embargo Act of 1807-1809
  • -no trade with anyone, TJ tries to avoid War
  • -1790-$20 mil ($970 Bill-2013)
  • 1807-$108 mil ($4.1 Trill-2013)
  • 1808-$22 mil ($777 Bill-2013)
  • -VERY unpopular! Why? Where?

The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809-1810

    • -Madison wants to keep the US neutral
    • -trade with all but England and France
    • -would trade with Eng. or Fr. If they would respect America’s neutral rights
    • -does not work, which led to
  • Macon’s Bill, No. 2, 1810-1811
  • -a poor moment in diplomatic history
  • -Napoleon took advantage of this
  • which led to
  • Non-Importation 1811-1812
  • -no imports from England

Causes of the War of 1812

  • Free seas and trade (Empire of Liberty)
    • Harassment of shipping
    • Impressment--From 1808-1811 over 6,000 Sailors
  • Frontier pressures—British aid to the Indians
  • War Hawks—Henry Clay (KY), John Calhoun (SC)

Divided Nation

  • Election of 1812 - Madison and De Witt Clinton-NY
  • Issue was the war—”Mr. Madison’s War”
  • “War that never needed to happen”
  • Madison was the most inept President to lead us
  • into War

No army and a weak navy (US-12 ships, GB-800)

  • no clear-cut way to raise $
  • NE did not want to fight England
  • Hartford Convention
    • 12/14-1/15
    • Plot secession based on the issue of state’s rights

Hopes for victory

  • Napoleon’s continued success in Europe
      • -we are fighting Britain’s JV’s
  • Campaign against Canada
  • Madison gets the people who fought in the Rev. to be in charge
  • England wanted to cut off NE from the rest

The War of 1812 is probably the most little known War in American History. Why do you think this is true?

  • Looking back at the causes of the war, are any of these legitimate reasons?
  • What were the two sides TRULY fighting over?
  • Why were the stakes so incredibly high?

War Plan

  • 1812--Three-pronged attack on Canada—failed
  • 1813--Battle of Lake Erie Oliver Perry, U.S. has control of the Great Lakes for the 1st time
  • 1813--Battle of Thames
    • Tecumseh killed
    • William Henry Harrison
  • 1812-1813-One or two good wins, rest debacles
the roof is on fire
The Roof is on Fire…
  • 1814—Napoleon captured by British, allows them to focus on America
  • In August 1814, British Forces Sailed into Chesapeake Bay and capture Washington D.C.
  • They burn the White House and the Capitol
fort mchenry and new orleans
Fort McHenry and New Orleans
  • 9/13/14--America withstands the British bombardment of Ft McHenry
  • 1/8/15—America defeats British at the Battle of New Orleans
  • 12/24/14—Treaty of Ghent signed ending the War

Treaty of Ghent

  • status quo ante bellum, or the exact same state of affairs as before the war
  • no mention of impressment or change in land
  • on paper, it was as if the war was never fought
  • Recognition of the U.S. as an independent nation
  • -ex: up to this point, American Wars were dictated by European wars, not so for the next Century

If The War of 1812 ended in a tie, why was it important?

  • End of the Federalist Party
  • - Hartford Convention and Burr-Hamilton
  • Growth of American industry
  • -All the trading acts and the war forced the country to be self-sufficient (N.E. began to build factories and manufacture goods)
  • Anglo-American relations improved

Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison

  • became heroes
  • Indians pushed west of the Mississippi
  • Growth of nationalism and patriotism— pumped cause we defeated the British at New Orleans
  • Selective memory:
  • Americans felt that we beat them during the whole war
  • United the country