APUSH – UNIT 2CHAPTERS 6-9 Duel for North America War for American Independence Building a New Nation
France and the Clash of EmpiresPages 105-111 • French colonial goals and issues • Comparisons to England and Spain • Impacts of the Peace of Utrecht • World Wars and the Americas
Causes Key Events Key Individuals Outcomes Impact on the Colonists French and Indian WarPages 111-119
Albany Plan • It is proposed that humble application be made for an act of Parliament of Great Britain, by virtue of which one general government may be formed in America, including all the said colonies, within and under which government each colony may retain its present constitution, except in the particulars wherein a change may be directed by the said act, as hereafter follows. • 1. That the said general government be administered by a President-General, to be appointed and supported by the crown; and a Grand Council, to be chosen by the representatives of the people of the several Colonies met in their respective assemblies. • 5. That after the first three years, when the proportion of money arising out of each Colony to the general treasury can be known, the number of members to be chosen for each Colony shall, from time to time, in all ensuing elections, be regulated by that proportion, yet so as that the number to be chosen by any one Province be not more than seven, nor less than two.
Albany Plan (Con’t) • 9. That the assent of the President-General be requisite to all acts of the Grand Council, and that it be his office and duty to cause them to be carried into execution. • 14. That they make laws for regulating and governing such new settlements, till the crown shall think fit to form them into particular governments. • 15. That they raise and pay soldiers and build forts for the defence of any of the Colonies, and equip vessels of force to guard the coasts and protect the trade on the ocean, lakes, or great rivers; but they shall not impress men in any Colony, without the consent of the Legislature.
Albany Plan (Con’t) • 16. That for these purposes they have power to make laws, and lay and levy such general duties, imposts, or taxes, as to them shall appear most equal and just (considering the ability and other circumstances of the inhabitants in the several Colonies), and such as may be collected with the least inconvenience to the people; rather discouraging luxury, than loading industry with unnecessary burdens. • 22. That, in case of the death of the President-General, the Speaker of the Grand Council for the time being shall succeed, and be vested with the same powers and authorities, to continue till the King's pleasure be known.
MercantilismPages 121-125 • Theory • Adam Smith’s opinion? • Role of the Navigation Laws • “Prosperity trickles down?” • Economic bondage?
Adam Smith • Big Daddy of Economics “To prohibit a great people, however, from making all that they can of every part of their own produce, or from employing their stock and industry in the way that they judge most advantageous to themselves, is a manifest violation of the most sacred rights of mankind.”
Opening Paragraphs • Write an opening paragraph < 7 minutes • Remember: • What is the question asking? B.T.O. • Background • Thesis – central theme • Organization – How will the essay go?
Essay Question • To what extent was British mercantilist policy responsible for the economic success of the colonies? • What does the question ask for? • How would you start your response?
Acts and more Acts….Pages 125-135 • Sugar Act • Significance and components • Quartering Act • Stamp Act • Issues, actions, and outcomes • Townshend Acts • Intolerable Acts • Significance and components
Colonial ResponsesPages 125-135 • Boston Massacre • Significance • Committees of correspondence • Goals • Tea Party • Outcomes and reactions • First Continental Congress • Key Actions • Lexington and Concord
Crispus Attucks • "And honor to Crispus Attucks,who was leader and voice that day;The first to defy,and the first to die,with Maverick, Carr and Gray.It riot or revolution,or mob or crowd as you may,such deaths have been seeds of nations,such lives shall be honored for ay".- John Boyle O'Reilly
Committees of Correspondence Purpose warn neighboring colonies about incidents with British. broaden the resistance movement.
Tea Act (1773) • British East India Co.: • Monopoly on Br. tea imports. • Many members of Parl. held shares. • Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!) • North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.
The Coercive or IntolerableActs (1774) 1. Port Bill 2. Government Act 3. New Quartering Act Lord North 4. Administration of Justice Act
First Continental Congress (1774) 55 delegates from 12 colonies Agenda How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act? 1 vote per colony represented.
The British Are Coming . . . Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
The Shot Heard ’Round the World! Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775
Was the American Revolution Inevitable??
Does this sound familiar? • The world’s most powerful nation is caught up in a war against a small guerrilla army. • The superpower must resupply its troops from thousands of miles away (very expensive). • Support for the war at home is divided.
Does this sound familiar? (Part 2) • The rebels are receiving financial and military support from the superpower’s chief rival. • As the war drags on and casualties increase, generals are disgraced and the rebels gain momentum. Who is the superpower? Who are the rebels?
History Repeats Itself • The American Revolution • Vietnam • Iraq?
Continental Army Strengths Home field Motivating cause Inspirational leadership European officers Weaknesses Untrained soldiers Shortages of food and equipment Limited navy No central government Britain Strengths Best trained soldiers and sailors in the World Strong government with available funds Support of loyalists and Native Americans Weaknesses Weak military leaders Distance from home Lack of personal involvement Unfamiliar territory Military Strengths and Weaknesses
Washington’s Headaches • Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral]. • State/colony loyalties. • Congress couldn’t tax to raise money for the Continental Army. • Poor training [until the arrival of Baron von Steuben.
Military Strategies The Americans The British • Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. • Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down] • Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies. • Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. • Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. • “Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.
Early StagesPages 142-147 • Second Continental Congress • Goals • Actions • Bunker Hill • Significance • Olive Branch Petition • Outcomes • Role of the Hessians
Thomas PainePages 142-147 • Slow road to Independence? • Common Sense • Republicanism • What? • Why? • Flavors?
Bunker Hill (June, 1775) The British suffered over 40% casualties.
The Second Continental Congress(1775) Olive Branch Petition
Selections • The cause of America is, in a great measure, the cause of all mankind. Many circumstances have, and will arise, which are not local, but universal, and through which the principles of all lovers of mankind are affected, and in the event of which, their affections are interested. The laying a country desolate with fire and sword, declaring war against the natural rights of all mankind, and extirpating the defenders thereof from the face of the earth, is the concern of every man to whom nature hath given the power of feeling; of which class, regardless of party censure, is COMMON SENSE
Selections… • SOME writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave little or no distinction between them; whereas they are not only different, but have different origins. Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices. The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher
Phase II: NY & PA[1777-1778]