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Africa & Asia: The Road to Independence

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  1. Africa & Asia:The Road to Independence Chapter 30 Notes

  2. Post-World War II Independence • Three routes to independence • Negotiated Independence • Parts of Asia and Africa gained their independence without much bloodshed • India & Pakistan • Japan & Korea • Ghana & the Congo • Incomplete Independence • Places with sizeable settler populations or Cold War importance struggled to gain their independence • South Africa, Kenya, & Algeria • Vietnam • Civil War • China resumed civil war between nationalists and communists

  3. Negotiated Independence: India • India & Pakistan gained their independence August 1947 • Communal violence ensued as millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India • Violence broke out over Kashmir • Jawaharlal Nehru (right) became the first prime minister of India • Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first prime minister of Pakistan

  4. Negotiated Independence: Japan • United States occupied Japan from August 1945-1952 • Feared Soviets would influence Japan • Japanese cooperated with the U.S. • Political and social changes • Military disbanded and military spending limited • Shintoism was abolished as state religion • New parliamentary system with constitution • Women received the right to vote • Large estates were divided and redistributed to farmers • Zaibatsu combines were temporarily dissolved

  5. Negotiated Independence: Korea, et al. • Korea was divided at 38th parallel • Korean War resulted in a Soviet backed North Korea and U.S. backed South Korea • Hong Kong remained a British colony until 1997 • Singapore gained independence from Britain in 1959 • Chiang Kai-shek established the Republic of China on Taiwan

  6. Negotiated Independence: Africa • African “nationalism” • Negritude movement • Pan-Africanism • World War II • West built factories in Africa • Africans migrated to cities looking for work • Kwame Nkrumah gained independence for Ghana in 1957 • First successful mass movement • 1960 is known as the “Year of Africa”

  7. Incomplete Independence: South Africa • Gained home rule in 1910 • Had over 4 million white residents • Denied civil rights to black population • Whites institute apartheid in 1948 • Reserved best jobs for whites • Reserved 87% of land for whites • Black Africans & Indians couldn’t vote • ANC led mass protests against apartheid • Sharpeville Massacre (1960) • ANC leader Nelson Mandela arrested and sentenced to life in prison in 1964

  8. Black protests of apartheid increased in the 1980s Bishop Desmond Tutu encouraged international embargo of South Africa Gained worldwide attention due to TV End of Apartheid Nelson Mandela freed in 1990 Apartheid laws repealed in 1990-1991 First free election occurred in 1994 New constitution passed in 1996 Includes U.S. style Bill of Rights Incomplete Independence: South Africa

  9. Incomplete Independence: Kenya • White coffee planters felt ethnic Kenyans were not ready for self-government • Called rebels the Mau Mau • Violence erupted in the 1950s • British captured native fighters and resettled them in camps • Jomo Kenyatta & other leaders were imprisoned for eight years • Kenyatta negotiated Kenyan independence in 1961 • Elected president in 1964

  10. Incomplete Independence: Algeria • Algeria was viewed as an extension of France • One million settlers created a maintain at all costs attitude • France dependent upon Algerian oil & gas fields and vineyards • National Liberation Front (FLN) made up of Berbers and Arabs demanded independence • Settlers and rich Arabs and Berbers continue fight against the FLN • Form the Secret Army Organization (OAS) • After 8 years of violence and thousand of casualties, France eventually negotiated independence in 1962 • Millions of French settlers and wealthy Arabs and Berbers emigrated to France

  11. Incomplete Independence: Vietnam • World War II • Viet Minh (communists) successfully resisted Japanese occupation • Provided assistance during famine • Instituted communist reforms • Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam independent from France in 1945 • French refused to recognize independence and tried to reoccupy the region • Defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 Leaders of the Viet Minh: Vo Nguyen Giap (left) and Ho Chi Minh (right)

  12. Africa & Asia After Independence

  13. Asia & Africa After Independence • Challenges facing independent states • Political Instability • Most countries end up one-party states or military dictatorships • The Cold War • Colonial Legacy • The Population “Bomb” • Parasitic Cities & Endangered ecosystems • Women’s Subordination • Neocolonialism

  14. Dictatorships in the 20th Century

  15. One Party States

  16. Democracy in 20th Century

  17. Military Dictatorships • Why military dictatorships? • Military is more resistant to religious and ethnic rivalries • Military used to suppress ethnic and religious tensions • A monopoly of force • A degree of technical training • Most are staunchly anticommunist • Military dictatorships often bring political stability but economic development is rare Clockwise from top left: Idi Amin of Uganda, Mobutu Sese Seko of the Congo, Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya

  18. Military Dictatorship: Egypt • Gamal Abdel Nasser • Seized power in 1952 • Embarrassed by defeat in Arab-Israeli War of 1948 • Instituted a series of reforms • Land reform, education, subsidized food costs, emphasized industrial growth • Reforms foiled by corruption, lack of foreign investment, & population growth • Supported Pan-Arabism • Opposed Israel • Built the Aswan Dam

  19. One-Party State: Ghana • Kwame Nkrumah • Originally committed to social & economic reform • Reforms hindered by lack of education, industrialization, and decline of cocoa prices • Leftist (socialist) leanings won support from Soviets & alienated Western investors • Ruled as a authoritarian dictator • Crushed political opposition, staged “events”, manipulated history, etc.

  20. Democracy: Botswana • Democratic since gaining independence in 1966 • Stable economy based upon diamonds, tourism, & manufacturing • Per capita GDP: $12,500 • World average: $7,400 • Predominantly Christian • AIDS/HIV rate was 24% in 2006

  21. Democracy: India • Advantages • Military defends secular democracy • Came to independence with a larger industrial and scientific center, better communication systems, and a larger, more skilled middle class • Disadvantages • Population growth, poverty, unemployment, religious & ethnic diversity, and natural disasters • Military conflicts with Pakistan over Kashmir • Early Government • Reforms to help lower castes and women • Spearheaded the nonalignment movement

  22. Democracy: India • Indira Gandhi • Tried to limit freedom of press • Proposed involuntary sterilization to slow population growth • Indian Economy • Mix of private and state initiatives • Green Revolution • Introduced improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation • Credited for averting a global famine • Growing middle class • World’s largest film industry

  23. The Cold War • U.S. and Soviet Union attempted to influence new states • Bandung Conference 1955 • Conference participants claimed to be “non-aligned” • Nasser and Nkrumah attended the conference • Many independence movements received help from the Soviet Union or Cuba • United States often interfered in these nations • The Congo and the Cold War • Nkrumah overthrown by C.I.A. in 1966 • Proxy wars fueled ethnic tension & genocide • Hutus in Rwanda massacred 750,000 ethnic Tutsis in 1995

  24. Colonial Legacy • All new nations were “artificial nations” • European colonial boundaries rarely took into account the ethnicities, interests, and histories of the people • European control often intensified existing divisions • Minority Tutsi were favored over the majority Hutu in Rwanda • Europe often “cut-and-run” at the end of colonial rule • Often led to ethnic strife in new nations • India, Nigeria, the Congo, Palestine, etc. • Pakistan quickly divided into two nations – Pakistan & Bangladesh • New rulers create a national identity • Separatist movements emerged and led to civil war in Morocco, India, the Sudan, & Nigeria

  25. Population Bomb • Why? • Introduction of new food crops (Columbian Exchange), colonialism ended local warfare, railroads cut down on famine, improved hygiene & medicine, resistance to birth control, declining infant mortality rates

  26. Population Cartogram

  27. AIDS in the Twentieth Century

  28. Parasitic Cities • Massive post-independence urbanization occurred in most countries • No expanding industrial centers meant few jobs & low wages • Urban poor could become politically volatile • Little or no urban planning • Slum areas with no electricity, running water, or basic sewage • Cities are not productive thus “parasitic” • Puts pressure on rural areas • Draw food and resources from depleted countryside • Contributes to soil depletion, deforestation, desertification, etc.

  29. Women’s Subordination • New nations often supported women’s suffrage, equal legal rights, education, & occupational opportunities (in theory) • In reality, most societies remained patriarchal • Men dominated most political positions • Prominent female leaders were often related to powerful men • Indira Gandhi, Benazir Bhutto, Corazon Aquino • Arranged marriages, early marriage ages, and large families • Dietary customs increase chances of malnutrition • Female infanticide is common in many places • China, India, East Africa • Religious revivalism erodes women’s rights • Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, India, the Sudan

  30. Neocolonialism • Most nations continued to rely upon trading cash crops or raw materials to industrialized nations in return for manufactured goods • Price of commodities (cash crops and minerals) often fluctuate • One or two bad years could destroy an emerging nation’s economy • Some organizations have been formed to limit fluctuation • OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries • Government corruption and lack of reforms also contribute to neocolonialism • Nations turn to international organizations or industrial nations for help • International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank

  31. Middle East after World War II

  32. Arab Independence • Saudi Arabia became independent after World War I • Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Jordan gained independence after World War II with little difficulty • Complete autonomy was difficult • Egypt due to Suez Canal • Cold War tensions • Other states due to oil • OPEC

  33. Creation of Israel • Israel was created by a UN mandate in 1947 • Israel seized control of Jerusalem & all of Palestine except the West Bank & Gaza Strip in 1949 • Israel easily wins the Arab-Israeli War of 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 1973

  34. Arab Nationalism • Problems facing Arab nationalism • Cold War splits nations as some allied with the U.S. and others the USSR • Differing government types (monarchy, military dictatorships, Islamic revolutionary) • Sunni-Shi’a split • Anwar Sadat facilitated peace process between Arab world & Israel (1978-1980) • His reward? He was assassinated in 1981 • Sadat’s assassination made Saddam Hussein leader of the Arab world

  35. Palestinian Liberation Organization • Created in 1964 by Yasser Arafat to promote Palestinian rights • Often resorted to “terrorism” against Israel • Negotiated limited Palestinian self-rule in 1993 and 1995 • PLO was replaced by Hamas as the leading anti-Israeli organization in Palestine Yasser Arafat, founder of the PLO, and Yitzak Rabin, Israel’s prime minister, shake hands after signing the Olso Accords in 1994

  36. Iranian Revolution • Preliminary Phase • Iran was never colonized • Shah Reza Pahlavi ruled as a dictator • Used oil profits to modernize Iran • Reforms angered the middle class, religious leaders, merchants, rural poor, urban laborers, and the army • The Event • In the late 1970s a decline in oil prices caused massive unemployment and rural unrest

  37. Iranian Revolution • Initial Phase • Sit-ins, riots, urban protests • Government exiled religious leaders • Military was unwilling to defend the Shah • Radical Phase • Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile in France & overthrew the Shah in 1979 • Ayatollah proclaimed himself “jurisprudent” • Ayatollah quickly repressed constitutional & leftist revolutionaries

  38. Images of the Revolution

  39. Images of the Revolution

  40. Recovery Phase • Shiite Fundamentalism • Purge Iran of the “satanic” influences of the U.S. & Europe • Banned alcohol, coeducational classrooms, mixed swimming, & western entertainment • Institute Sharia law • Iran Hostage Crisis • Iranians stormed the U.S. embassy taking 70 Americans captive • Government Reforms • Nationalized banks, insurance companies, & large farms • Attempts at land reform and economic development were minimal due to the Iran – Iraq War (1980-1988)