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America’s Second War for Independence. The War of 1812. “On to Canada, on to Canada”. Militarily unprepared Canada was a focus because the British army was weakest there. Offensive strategy was poorly conceived Best strategy—capture Montreal America strategy—3 pronged 1. Detroit

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on to canada on to canada
“On to Canada, on to Canada”
  • Militarily unprepared
  • Canada was a focus because the British army was weakest there.
  • Offensive strategy was poorly conceived
  • Best strategy—capture Montreal
  • America strategy—3 pronged
    • 1. Detroit
    • 2. Niagara
    • 3. Lake Champlain
the battle of the great lakes
The Battle of the Great Lakes
  • Oliver Hazard Perry—built a fleet of green-timbered ships on the shores of Lake Erie
  • “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”
  • Battle of the Thames—British defeated by General Harrison in October 1813
  • By 1814, Americans were grimly defending own soil
washington burned
Washington Burned
  • August 1814
  • 4,000 Br. troops scattered some 6,000 militiamen
  • Burned the capitol and the White House
fort mchenry and francis scott key
Fort McHenry and Francis Scott Key
  • Br. forces hammered Ft. McHenry
  • American stood strong
  • Br. fail to capture it
new orleans
New Orleans
  • Force led by Andrew Jackson consisting of pirates, Frenchmen, men from KY, TN, and LA.
  • British launched a frontal assault—BIG MISTAKE
  • January 8, 1815—Br. lost 2,000 in 30”
    • Major victory for the Americans
treaty of ghent
Treaty of Ghent
  • Officially ended the War of 1812
  • December 24, 1814
  • Armistice
    • No mention of grievances
    • “Not one inch of territory ceded or lost.”
results of war of 1812

Results of the war included:

  • End of the Federalist Party (opposed war)
  • Encouraged industries in U.S.
  • Rise in nationalism/American independence

Despite the burning of the President’s mansion, the U.S. emerged strong

federalist grievances

Demanded $ assistance from DC for lost trade

Const. amend. Requiring 2/3 vote in Congress before embargo, new states, or declaration of war.

Federalist Grievances
  • Hartford Convention
    • 26 delegates from NE states met to discuss issues
other federalist demands
Other Federalist demands
  • Abolish 3/5 clause
  • Single term for presidents
  • Prohibit the election of 2 successive presidents from the same state
    • Aimed at the “Virginia Dynasty”
  • Utter failure in wake of Battle of New Orleans
  • End of Federalist Party
clay s american system
Clay’s “American System”
  • Markets were flooded with cheap British goods, hurting American industries
  • Tariff of 1816—established the first protective tariff in US history
  • American System—economic system proposed by Henry Clay
    • 1. strong banking system
    • 2. protective tariff
    • 3. roads and canals
road blocks of the american system
Road blocks of the American System
  • Federal government voted in 1817 to give $1.5 million to the states for internal improvements
    • Vetoed by Madison
    • NE strongly opposed the building of a road because it would drain away population and create competing states
the era of good feelings
The Era of Good Feelings?
  • James Monroe was elected president in 1816 by the Republicans.
  • One-party rule
  • Sectional tensions increase, conflict over slavery, internal improvements and the economy caused issues
the missouri compromise
  • In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for statehood
  • Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted as a “free” state
  • Henry Clay organized a compromise.


sharing oregon and acquiring florida
Sharing Oregon and Acquiring Florida
  • 1818—Anglo-American Convention with Britain
    • Provided for a 10 year joint occupation of Oregon
  • 1819—Adams-Onis Treaty
    • Spain ceded Florida to America
the monroe doctrine
  • In the early 19th Century, various European countries hinted at increased colonization
  • In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it clear to Europe: Don’t interfere with Western Hemisphere