REFORM IN AMERICA. American Culture Is Changing. New Wave of Immigrants in America during this time. They were looking for a better life. Between 1815 and 1860 there were 5 million immigrants that came to America.
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New Wave of Immigrants in America during this time. They were looking for a better life.
Between 1815 and 1860 there were 5 million immigrants that came to America.
They were escaping violence, religious turmoil, political turmoil, poverty, and starvation.
Many found prosperity and a good new life. However, some found themselves being discriminated against, and endured a great deal of prejudice.
A. Religious revival starts in frontier and sweeps the nation
B. Based on salvation through faith alone. Faith is displayed through daily actions.
C. Camp meetings and revivals used emotions to focus people’s attention on the message.
D. New religious groups appear – Joseph Smith starts Mormon church to prepare an earthly kingdom for God’s return. Move to Utah territory to escape persecution.
Charles Grandison Finney- preach grace through faith. He was a Presbyterian Minister.
Said each person is responsible for their own spiritual rebirth and salvation.
He held camp meeting and revivals across the Northeast and Ohio Valley.The Second Great Awakening
Second Great Awakening
A.Romanticism –feelings over logic
Transcendentalism – to overcome physical limits of the body by being in touch with the universe
B. Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Nature says fulfillment comes through communion with nature
C. Henry David Thoreau Emily Dickenson Walt Whitman famous American poets focusing on romantic transcendentalism
Romanticized about the American West.
The Leatherstocking Tales
The Last of the Mohicans (1826)
The Virginian (Owen Wister)James Fenimore Cooper
Irving was a prolific author of fiction and non-. He wrote numerous short stories, biographies, histories, and tales of his travels.
His characters Ichabod Crane and Rip van Winkle are now icons of popular American culture,Washington Irving
The January 1845 publication of “The Raven” made Poe a household name.Edgar Allan Poe
Abolitionist, and worked from women's rights.Emily Dickinson
The Reform and Abolitionist Movement
Initially these benevolent societies were created to spread God’s teachings.
However they soon became useful in the fighting of social problems
Benevolent SocietiesLyman Beecher
Benevolent Societies provide for needs of poor and immigrants
Education for children and immigrants
Horace Mann starts free public education movement
Women’s rights movement seeks equal treatment and legal status for women
Horace Mann focused on educational reform
He push for more public education and supported the creation of the 1st School Board in Massachusetts
In 1852, Massachusetts passed the 1st mandatory school attendance law.
At the same time many reformers pushed for the establishment of tax-supported public elementary schoolsEducational Reform
Education reforms were mainly aimed at the male students.
During the 1850s some women did work to create more educational opportunities for women
1787-1870Educational ReformWomen’s Education Emma Willard
Emma Willard High School in New York.What did Emma Willard establish?
“I appear before the immense assembly this evening as a thief and a robber. I stole this head, these limbs, and this body from my master, and ran off with them.”
Thomas Dew of S.C.