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REFORM IN AMERICA. American Culture Is Changing. New Wave of Immigrants in America during this time. They were looking for a better life. Between 1815 and 1860 there were 5 million immigrants that came to America.

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    american culture is changing
    American Culture Is Changing

    New Wave of Immigrants in America during this time. They were looking for a better life.

    Between 1815 and 1860 there were 5 million immigrants that came to America.

    They were escaping violence, religious turmoil, political turmoil, poverty, and starvation.

    Many found prosperity and a good new life. However, some found themselves being discriminated against, and endured a great deal of prejudice.

    ireland the potato famine
    Ireland- The Potato Famine
    • (1845) Famine on the Potato crops. At this time over 2 million people came to America from Ireland.
    • Many of them had no money at all. They did not have any real skill at a job as well. Most moved to Industrial cities and did hard labor.
    • New York
    • Boston
    • Philadelphia
    german immigrants
    German Immigrants
    • 1 ½ million German (mostly Catholic). Most have enough money to move beyond cities and buy land.
    • Moved into the Midwest.
    william poole a k a bill the butcher
    William Poole (July 24, 1821 – March 8, 1855),

    also known as Bill the Butcher, was a

    member of the New York City gang the Bowery Boys, a bare-knuckle boxer

    and a leader of the Know Nothing political movement.

    "Good-bye boys; I die a true American."

    William Poole (A.K.A) Bill the Butcher
    • Nativism – is hostility towards immigrants.
    • With large groups of new people, and with new languages be used hostilities towards immigrants grew.
    • Many Americans during the 1800s were Anti-Catholic.
    • A great deal of the prominent ministers of the era preached against the new Catholic immigrants in America.
    • This caused a number of riots..
    • The new immigrants caused a lot of new Nativist groups to come about.
    • The Supreme Order of the Star Spangled Banner.
    • The American Party or The Know-Nothings The Know-Nothings.
    the know nothings
    The Know-Nothings
    • Check this out....It's a party platform.
    • * Severe limits on immigration.* Restricting political office to native-born Americans* Mandating a wait of 21 years before an immigrant could gain citizenship.* Restricting public school teacher positions to Protestants.* Mandating daily Bible readings in public schools.* Restricting the sale of liquor.* Restricting the use of languages other than English.
    new religious revivals the second great awakening
    New Religious RevivalsThe Second Great Awakening

    A. Religious revival starts in frontier and sweeps the nation

    B. Based on salvation through faith alone. Faith is displayed through daily actions.

    C. Camp meetings and revivals used emotions to focus people’s attention on the message.

    D. New religious groups appear – Joseph Smith starts Mormon church to prepare an earthly kingdom for God’s return. Move to Utah territory to escape persecution.

    the second great awakening
    Many people thought that religious thought was slipping in America.

    Charles Grandison Finney- preach grace through faith. He was a Presbyterian Minister.

    Said each person is responsible for their own spiritual rebirth and salvation.

    He held camp meeting and revivals across the Northeast and Ohio Valley.

    The Second Great Awakening
    • As was typical of the age, Finney saw the nationwide revival he was helping to lead as an opportunity to do social justice.
    • He preached against slavery and encouraged the formation of “societies” to support missions, publish Bibles, and care for the mentally ill.
    • In fact, the Second Great Awakening led to the Abolition Movement, the Temperance Movement, and others.
    the split baptist southern baptist
    The Split Baptist/Southern Baptist
    • The Baptist split over the Issue of Slavery.
    • The SBC became a separate denomination in 1845 in Augusta, Georgia, following a regional split with northern Baptists over the issues of slavery. After the American Civil War, another split occurred: most black Baptists in the South separated from white churches and set up their own congregations.
    the reform movement and the great awakening
    The Reform Movement and the Great Awakening
    • Along with the obvious religious bases, the Great Awakening and the reform movement were based upon the principle that individuals human power can change the world into a greater place.
    • True reform can take place “only through the voluntary energies of the nation itself.”
    • While many give credit to God for the energies to change, others look to Nature.
    american literary movement
    American Literary Movement
    • Romanticism –feelings over logic
    • Transcendentalism – to overcome physical limits of the body by being in touch with the universe
    • There were a great deal of writers during this time.
    ralph waldo emerson 1803 1882
    (1836) Nature

    Most influential transcendentalist writer.

    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
    margret fuller
    Margret Fuller
    • Margret Fuller
    • Her major work, Woman in the Nineteenth Century, published in 1845, profoundly affected the women's rights movement which had its formal beginning at Seneca Falls, New York, three years later.
    • She died at sea. Body was never found.
    Walden Pond

    Walden Pond

    III.American Literary Movement

    A.Romanticism –feelings over logic

    Transcendentalism – to overcome physical limits of the body by being in touch with the universe

    B. Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Nature says fulfillment comes through communion with nature

    C. Henry David Thoreau Emily Dickenson Walt Whitman famous American poets focusing on romantic transcendentalism

    james fenimore cooper
    Wrote about westward movement, and the tales of American settlers. Was the creator of the WESTERN.

    Romanticized about the American West.

    The Leatherstocking Tales

    The Last of the Mohicans (1826)

    The Pathfinder

    The Virginian (Owen Wister)

    James Fenimore Cooper
    the leatherstocking tales
    The Leatherstocking Tales
    • Nathaniel "Natty" Bumppo is the protagonist of James Fenimore Cooper's pentalogy of novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales.
    • The Deerslayer
    • The Last of the Mohicans
    • The Pathfinder
    • The Pioneers
    • The Praire
    nathaniel hawthorne
    The Scarlet Letter (1850)

    Showed the psychological suffering that happens from sin.

    Hawthorne was from New England.

    Nathaniel Hawthorne
    herman melville1
    Herman Melville
    • Herman Melville was not very famous and liked in his time, but after World War I, he began to be read again.
    • His story of Moby Dick has long sections of it where he just talks about whaling and shipping. Thankfully, the movie version leaves that out.
    washington irving
    First noted American authors to be highly acclaimed in Europe during his life time.

    Irving was a prolific author of fiction and non-. He wrote numerous short stories, biographies, histories, and tales of his travels.

    His characters Ichabod Crane and Rip van Winkle are now icons of popular American culture,

    Washington Irving
    edgar allan poe
    At the age of twenty-seven Poe married Virginia Clemm in Richmond VA. She was not yet fourteen.

    The January 1845 publication of “The Raven” made Poe a household name.

    Edgar Allan Poe
    weird dude
    Weird Dude!
    • tragedy struck in 1842 when Poe’s wife Virginia contracted tuberculosis, the disease that had already claimed Poe’s mother, brother, and foster mother. 
    • Virginia was 24.
    • His critics assumed he would soon be dead. They were right. Poe only lived another two years and spent much of that time traveling from one city to the next giving lectures and finding backers for his latest proposed magazine project to be called The Stylus.
    • Poe died on October 7, 1849 at the age of forty. The exact cause of Poe’s death remains a mystery.
    walt whitman
    Born on Long Island, NY.

    Whitman worked as a journalist, a teacher, a government clerk, and–in addition to publishing his poetry–was a volunteer nurse during the American Civil War.

    Maybe the most important poet during this era.

    Walt Whitman
    walt whitman1
    Walt Whitman
    • His work was very controversial in its time, particularly his poetry collection Leaves of Grass, which was described as obscene for its overt sexuality.
    • Whitman's sexuality is often discussed alongside his poetry. Though biographers continue to debate his sexuality, he is usually described as either homosexual or bisexual in his feelings and attractions.
    • Whitman was deeply influenced by deism. He denied any one faith was more important than another, and embraced all religions
    emily dickinson
    The most remembered female poet of the 19th century.

    Abolitionist, and worked from women's rights.

    Emily Dickinson
    the penny press
    The Penny Press
    • The 1800s there was a huge rise in the amount of newspapers being read each each.
    • The newspaper came out every week, and it cost about 6 cents. That was a little high for the common man.
    • PennyPapers-They come out because they wanted a cheaper form of literature for the average reader.
    • Around this time some of the world’s first general interest magazines came out.
    utopian communities
    Utopian Communities
    • During this time many Americans thought it would be a good idea to separate themselves from society.
    • Utopia- An ideal society, with cooperative living.
    • Brook Farm- the most famous during this era.


    The Reform and Abolitionist Movement

    reforming society
    Reforming Society
    • Dorothea Dix
    • Created special institutions in America for the Mentally Ill.
    lyman beecher
    Beecher was instrumental in establishing associations known as Benevolent Societies

    Initially these benevolent societies were created to spread God’s teachings.

    However they soon became useful in the fighting of social problems

    Benevolent Societies

    Lyman Beecher

    Improve inner city conditions

    Benevolent Societies provide for needs of poor and immigrants

    Education for children and immigrants

    Horace Mann starts free public education movement

    Women’s rights movement seeks equal treatment and legal status for women

    the temperance movement
    The Temperance Movement
    • What is the Temperance Movement?
    • Temperance
    • Initially wanted to moderate the use of Alcohol later advocated total abstinence.
    • After the Civil War, the movement declined only to regain momentum during the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. Led to the approval of the 18th Amendment.
    • Several temperance groups merged to form the American Temperance Union in 1833
    • American Temperance Union
    drunkard s progress1
    Drunkard’s Progress
    • 1846 Nathaniel Currier
    • Step 1. glass of alcohol with a friend.
    • “From the First Glass to the Grave.”
    • Steps 1-8.
    prison reform
    Prison Reform
    • The Penitentiaries of America.
    • What reforms were advocated for criminals?
    • Reformers such as Julia Tutwiler focused on improving prisons in the United States.
    • Many states began building new prisons, which they called penitentiaries that tried to rehabilitate criminals
    educational reform
    Horace Mann

    Horace Mann focused on educational reform

    He push for more public education and supported the creation of the 1st School Board in Massachusetts

    In 1852, Massachusetts passed the 1st mandatory school attendance law.

    At the same time many reformers pushed for the establishment of tax-supported public elementary schools

    Educational Reform
    educational reform in the south calvin wiley
    Educational Reform in the South Calvin Wiley
    • Calvin Wiley- He was the Horace Mann of the south. From North Carolina.
    • He built support for public schools in N. Carolina through tax-payers dollars.
    • By 1860 2/3 of white children in North Carolina were in public schools.
    • Education did not come about as easily in the south. By 1860 only 1/3 of whites went to school, and slaves or free black got no education what so ever.
    educational reform women s education emma willard
    What was the focus group of these early educational reformers?

    Education reforms were mainly aimed at the male students.

    During the 1850s some women did work to create more educational opportunities for women

    Emma Willard


    Educational ReformWomen’s Education Emma Willard
    what did emma willard establish
    Emma Willard founded a girl’s boarding school in Vermont (1814) that taught academic subjects, a rare opportunity for girls.

    Emma Willard High School in New York.

    What did Emma Willard establish?
    educational reform women s education
    Mary Lyon

    Mary Lyon founded the 1st institution of higher education for women only. First women’s University.

    Mount Holyoke Female Seminary

    In South Hadley, Massachusetts.

    Fact- Emily Dickinson went to school there.

    Educational ReformWomen’s Education
    educational reform women s education1
    Elizabeth Blackwell-

    The first woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S. or in Europe. In 1857 she founded the New York Infirmary for Women and Children. The staff was totally women.

    Educational ReformWomen’s Education
    the early woman s movement
    The Early Woman’s Movement
    • (1841) Catherine Beecher
    • The daughter of the minister Lyman Beecher.
    • Wrote A Treatise on Domestic Economy
    • Was aimed at women to reinforce good practices at home. How to provide childcare, cooking, and health matters.
    women seek greater rights in america
    Women seek Greater Rights in America
    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    • Who is Elizabeth Cady Stanton?
      • Along with Lucretia Mott they organized the Seneca Falls Convention
      • Organized the 1st women’s rights convention known as the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. Believed that men and women were equal. She also was an abolitionist.
    women seek greater rights in america1
    Women seek Greater Rights in America
    • Seneca Falls Convention
    • What is the Seneca Falls Convention?
    • This was a meeting to focus on equal rights for women
    • This marked the beginning of the women’s movement
    • Throughout the 1850’s, women organized more conventions to promote greater civil rights
    what is abolitionism
    What is Abolitionism
    • To ABOLISH means to destroy, to get rid of.
    • Abolition is the process of destroying or getting rid of.
    • Abolitionism therefore is the belief in abolishing something; in this case, it’s slavery.
    early opposition to slavery
    Early opposition to slavery
    • From the earliest days of the American republic, many wanted to abolish slavery. Quakers and Baptists were against human slavery from day one.
    • With the outbreak of the Second Great Awakening, people began to focus on living out a good, moral, active Christian life.
    • WWJD? He would not have a slave, that’s for sure.
    early opposition to slavery1
    Early Opposition to Slavery
    • Quakers and Baptists argued for the release of slaves.
    • Baptists in Virginia called for “every legal measure to wipe this horrid evil from the land.”
    2 ideas about abolitionism
    2 ideas about abolitionism
    • Gradualism – the gradual, slow replacement of a slave system over time with a different system so as not to cause economic problems
    • Many anti-slavery societies wanted to slowly replace slavery with hired labor, but to do so would threaten 2/3 of America’s exports. COTTON
    • Step 1 –ban any new slaves from entering the U.S.
    • Step 2 – phase out slavery in the North and northern part of the South
    • Step 3 – replace slavery in the deep South
    gradualism cont
    Gradualism cont…
    • Gradualism also called for slave owners to be compensated for their loses once slaves were freed.
    • Abolitionists believed slavery should end immediately without compensating former slave holders.
    • Most would agree that owning another human is wrong, so why reward sinful slave owners by giving them your tax dollars?
    option 3 colonization
    Option #3 - Colonization
    • In Dec. 1816, the American Colonization Society was formed to send Africans back to Africa.
    • Land was bought on the west coast of Africa for settling the former slaves back in to Africa.
    • In 1847, the colony became independent calling itself Liberia (as in Liberty) and its capital was Monrovia (after James Monroe, the president)
    • Despite having been slaves here in the U.S., most Africans chose to stay.
    • Only 12,000 were re-settled in what is now Liberia.
    american anti slavery society
    American Anti-slavery Society
    • Founded in 1833, its membership grew to 250,000 people in five years.
    • 1350 chapters were founded nation wide.
    new abolitionist movement
    David Walker

    David Walker, a free black from North Carolina published his book Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World.

    Walker called for the overthrow of slavery using any means necessary

    New Abolitionist Movement
    william lloyd garrison
    William Lloyd Garrison
    • 1831 William Lloyd Garrison starts publishing The Liberator an abolitionist newspaper.
    • Garrison boldly attacked such ideas as returning escaped slaves, gradualism, and sympathy for slave owners
    fredrick douglass
    Fredrick Douglass
    • 190,000 free blacks lived in the North. While still discriminated against, they cherished their freedom and wanted to help others in the South gain theirs.
    • Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave from Maryland who became a famous orator.
    fredrick douglass1
    Fredrick Douglass

    “I appear before the immense assembly this evening as a thief and a robber. I stole this head, these limbs, and this body from my master, and ran off with them.”

    Frederick Douglass

    Abolitionist rally


    sojourner truth
    Sojourner Truth
    • Sojourner Truth, as she now calls herself but whose name, originally, was Isabella was born, as near as she can now calculate, between the years 1797 and 1800. She was the daughter of James and Betsey.
    the northern reaction to the abolitionism to slavery
    The Northern Reaction to the Abolitionism to Slavery
    • Reactions in the North
    • While most northerners disliked slavery, they disliked extremism even more.
    • Many business people worried about abolitions effect on the economy.
    • Many warned that it would lead to a bitter war.
    • Others feared it would lead to a huge influx of freed slaves up north ruining their economy.
    the southern reaction to the abolitionism to slavery
    The Southern Reaction to the Abolitionism to Slavery
    • Reactions in the South
    • Southerners, who’s economy would collapse over night called slavery their “peculiar institution”. No one really wanted it, but they couldn’t get rid of it.
    • Southern politicians rushed to defend any threat to slavery
    thomas dew of south carolina
    Thomas Dew of South Carolina
    • Long-term Results
    • As the north was building factories and cities, the south remained agricultural.
    • Industries in the South were migrating North, increasing the South’s reliance on slavery.
    • “We have no hesitation in affirming that throughout the whole slave-holding country, the slaves of good slaveholders are his warmest, most constant, and most devoted friends.”

    Thomas Dew of S.C.

    nat turner
    Nat Turner
    • Nat Turner Rebellion
    • 1831, enslaved preacher Nat Turner led an armed rebellion of slaves in Virginia.
    • Over 50 white men, women, and children were killed in the uprising.
    • Though not even published in the South, Northern abolitionist newspapers were blamed and quickly shut down.
    • 1836, U.S. House of representatives formally agreed to no longer hear anti-slavery legislation.