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Section 3 : The Age of Napoleon. Chapter 6, Section 3 & 4.

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chapter 6 section 3 4
Chapter 6, Section 3 & 4
  • Key Terms and People: Napoleon Bonaparte, Admiral Horatio Nelson, coup d’état, plebiscite, Continental System, nationalism, Czar Alexander I, Hundred Days, Duke of Wellington, Prince Klemens von Metternich, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, indemnity, reactionary
  • Reading Focus: How did Napoleon rise to power? How did Emperor Napoleon come to dominate Europe? What were Napoleon’s most important policies? What events caused disaster and defeat for Napoleon? What were Napoleon’s last campaigns? What did the Congress of Vienna achieve? What is the legacy of the French Revolution?
  • Main Ideas: Napoleon Bonaparte rose through military ranks to become emperor over France and much of Europe. After defeating Napoleon, the European allies sent him into exile and held a meeting in Vienna to restore order and stability to Europe.
the directory where we left off last lesson
The Directory (Where we left off last lesson)
  • Many of the victims of the reign of terror were fellow radicals who had fallen out of favor with Robespierre and the Jacobins
  • Within two years the tide turned and the revolutionaries were able to advance beyond their borders and cast aside their more radical leaders
  • In July 1794, the Convention arrested Robespierre and his allies, convicted them of treason, and executed them
  • A group of conservative men of property seized power and ruled from 1795 to 1799 under a new institution called the Directory
  • The Directory sought a middle way between the ancien regime and radical revolution but had little success
  • In Nov 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup d’etat and seized power
napoleon 1769 1821
Napoleon (1769-1821)
  • Was an officer under King Louis XVI and had become a general at age 24
  • Gained fame in the First Italian Campaign of 1796-1797
    • Drove the Austrians from northern Italy and established French rule there

Energy, charm, and ability to make quick decisions

Intelligence, ease with words, & supreme confidence

the first italian campaign 1796 1797
The First Italian Campaign (1796-1797)
  • Although leading a very underequipped army, Napoleon fought 18 major battles and 47 engagements in 10 months to defeat Austria, and ensure France’s territorial integrity
  • Favorite techniques included:
    • Manoeuvresur les derrieres
    • Central position
manoeuvre sur les derrieres
Manoeuvresur les derrieres
  • While pressing the enemy front, Napoleon would outflank the enemy, move into its rear, and thereby sever its lines of communication
  • This prevented the arrival of enemy reinforcements, halted logistical support, and often forced the enemy into battle under unfavorable circumstances
  • By living off the countryside, relying on speed, and having much lighter logistical requirements, Napoleon was able to operate for a short time in the enemy’s rear without fear
central position
Central Position
  • When faced by several large enemy armies, Napoleon would fight a series of smaller battles against the enemy’s scattered forces
  • While containing one enemy army with a small French army, Napoleon would concentrate against another

Emperor Napoleon I

napoleon as emperor
Napoleon as Emperor
  • After a defeat by the British (Admiral Horatio Nelson) in Egypt, Napoleon returned to France in 1799 and joined the Directory
  • When Austria, Russia, and Britain formed a Second Coalition to attack France and end the Revolution, Napoleon staged a coup d’etat
  • He overthrew the Directory, imposed a new constitution, and named himself first consul
  • In 1802, he became consul for life and in 1804 crowned himself emperor by plebiscite

The crowning of Emperor Napoleon I

napoleon as stabilizer
Napoleon as Stabilizer
  • Napoleon brought stability to France through the Civil Code and the Concordat
  • The Concordat made peace with the Catholic Church. In 1801, Napoleon made an agreement with the Pope to recognize Catholicism as the religion of France.In return the Pope would not ask for the return of seized church lands.
  • The Civil Code affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men and protected private property.
  • But while Napoleon brought stability to France, his quest for power and the Revolution’s expansionist policy brought instability in Europe.
spreading the principles of the revolution
Spreading the Principles of the Revolution
  • Within his empire, Napoleon sought to spread some of the principles of the French Revolution, including legal equality, religious toleration & economic freedom.
  • The spread of French revolutionary principles was an important factor in the development of liberal traditions in these countries.
codification of laws
Codification of Laws
  • Most famous domestic achievement was his codification of the laws, called the seven codes of law
  • The most important was the Civil Code, or Napoleonic Code
  • The code recognized the principle of equality of all citizens before the law, the right of the individual to choose a profession, religious toleration & the abolition of serfdom & feudalism
napoleon as authoritarian
Napoleon as Authoritarian
  • Limited free speech, routinely censoring newspapers
  • Established a secret police force and detained thousands of political opponents
  • Manipulated public opinion through systematic propaganda
  • Ignored elective bodies
  • Surrounded himself with loyal military officers
  • Set his family above and apart from the French people

Joseph Fouche, head of Napoleon’s secret police

building the empire
Building the Empire
  • From 1805 to 1807, Napoleon’s Grand Army defeated the Austrian, Prussian & Russian armies.
  • His Grand Empire was composed of three major parts: the French Empire, dependent states and allied states
  • A sense of nationalism grew within France and conquered states
britain s survival
Britain's Survival
  • The aim of the Continental System was to stop British goods from reaching the European continent to be sold there.
  • It failed, Allied States resented being told not to trade with Britain, others began to cheat, others resisted
britain s survival1
Britain's Survival
  • Britain’s survival was due primarily to its naval power.
  • The British navy’s decisive defeat of a combined French-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in 1805 destroyed any thought of an invasion of Britain.
peninsular war guerrilla war
Peninsular War (Guerrilla War)
  • Napoleon occupied Portugal easily but he was also becoming wary of Spain’s loyalty so he sent 127,000 troops into northern Spain and later forced the king and his son to abdicate in his favor
  • Napoleon now controlled almost the entire European continent

Napoleon made his brother Joseph the king of Spain

peninsular war guerrilla war1
Peninsular War(Guerrilla War)
  • Napoleon’s efforts to enforce the Continental System eventually led him into battle on the Iberian Peninsula and later Russia
  • A resistance movement erupted in Spain and the British also sent an expeditionary force to Portugal led by the Duke of Wellington (England)
    • In Spain Napoleon grew frustrated as to why his traditional methods that had brought victory elsewhere were unable to crush what had become a “people’s war” led by clerics and minor government officials
peninsular war guerrilla war2
Peninsular War (Guerrilla War)
  • The guerrilla war in Spain eventually claimed the lives of some 300,000 Frenchmen
  • Napoleon was never able to deal with both the guerrillas and England simultaneously
  • On June 21, 1813 the Duke of Wellington finally defeated the French at Vitoria and forced them out of Spain
  • The loss of the Peninsular War was a major factor in the eventual collapse of Napoleon’s Empire

The Duke of Wellington

the european response
The European Response
  • Napoleon’s Grand empire collapsed almost as rapidly as it had been formed
  • Two major reasons for the collapse of Napoleon’s Grand Empire are: the survival of Great Britain & the force of nationalism.
russia logistics
  • In 1812, Napoleon decided to invade Russia, believing that the Russians and Czar Alexander I, who were growing increasingly frustrated by the Continental System, were conspiring with the British
  • He assembled a massive army of 600,000 soldiers, but this enormous size required supply trains that limited Napoleon’s mobility
  • Napoleon captured Moscow, but the Russians refused to surrender
disaster in russia
Disaster in Russia
  • The Russian forces refused to battle & retreated for hundreds of miles into Russia.
  • As they retreated, they burned their own villages & country side to keep Napoleon’s army from finding food.
  • When the remaining Grand Army arrived in Moscow, they found the city ablaze.
disaster in russia1
Disaster in Russia
  • Napoleon abandoned Moscow late in October 1812 and began the “Great Retreat”
  • Less than 40,000 out of the original 600,000 managed to arrive back in Poland in January 1813.

  • Napoleon’s “Great Retreat” from Russia
defeat and return
Defeat and Return
  • For the first time Napoleon faced four great powers simultaneously
  • The Coalition forced Napoleon to abdicate his throne in April 1814, restored the French monarchy, and exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba, near Corsica
  • In March 1815, Napoleon escaped, returned to France, and reconstituted his army
  • Allies of France restored Louis XVIII to the throne (brother of Louis XVI) and reinstituted the 1792 borders of France.
  • The king was unpopular and French citizens feared the return of the Old Order.
  • Napoleon organized an army and returned to Paris. When news reached the king, Louis XVIII fled to Belgium.
napoleon s return
Napoleon's Return
  • French allies declared Napoleon an outlaw, and many French who despised him for dragging France through years of war, were not happy.
  • However, thousands cheered him upon his return, beginning his Hundred Days of renewed glory.
the final defeat
The Final Defeat
  • At Waterloo in Belgium on June 18, 1815, Napoleon met a combined British & Prussian army under the Duke of Wellington & suffered a bloody defeat. By the end of the day casualties totaled around 50,000
  • This time, the victorious allies exiled Napoleon to St. Helena, a small island in the South Atlantic.
peace negotiations
Peace Negotiations
  • About 700 diplomats met in Vienna to discuss order and stability after the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria dominated the Congress. Metternich, a reactionary, wanted to restore Europe to its old monarchies and compensate allies for their losses.
  • National borders were redrawn to strengthen the countries bordering France, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the German Confederations were formed, and GB received foreign territories. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (leader of France) was instrumental in these new boundaries.
  • France was also forced to pay a large indemnity for damages during the wars.
legacy of the french revolution
Legacy of the French Revolution
  • Even though monarchs ruled again, Europe’s monarchs and nobles would no longer be secure in their privileges.
  • A few years after Napoleon’s fall, massive revolutions spread in Europe from end to end.
  • Ideas from the FR inspire people around the world to date.
wrap up
Wrap Up
  • How did Napoleon rise to power?
  • How did Emperor Napoleon come to dominate Europe?
  • What were Napoleon’s most important policies?
  • What events caused disaster and defeat for Napoleon?
  • What were Napoleon’s last campaigns?
  • What did the Congress of Vienna achieve?
  • What is the legacy of the French Revolution?