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22.1 Section Objectives – page 577. Section Objectives: 22.1. Identify the structures of nonvascular plants. Compare and contrast characteristics of the different groups of nonvascular plant. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580.

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22.1 Section Objectives – page 577


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    1. 22.1 Section Objectives – page 577 Section Objectives: 22.1 • Identify the structures of nonvascular plants. • Compare and contrast characteristics of the different groups of nonvascular plant.

    2. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Because a steady supply of _____ is not available everywhere, _________ plants are limited to moist habitats by streams and rivers or in temperate and tropical rain forests.

    3. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Recall that a lack of vascular tissue also limits the ____ of a plant. • Nonvascular plants, such as ____ are successful in habitats with adequate water.

    4. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • As in all plants, the life cycle of nonvascular plants includes an a_______ of _________ between a diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte. • However, nonvascular plant divisions include the only plants that have a dominant ____________ generation.

    5. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • ____________ grow attached to and depend on gametophytes to take in water and other substances. • Non-_______ sporophytes depend on their gametophytes for food.

    6. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Gametophytes of nonvascular plants produce two kinds of sexual ____________ structures. • The ____________ is the male reproductive structure in which sperm is produced.

    7. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • The __________ is the female reproductive structure in which eggs are produced. • _________, which begins the sporophyte generation, occurs in the archegonium.

    8. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • There are several divisions of nonvascular plants. • The first division you’ll study are the mosses, or ____________. • Mosses are small plants with _____ stems.

    9. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • The leaves of mosses are usually ____ cell thick. • Mosses have ______, colorless multicellular structures, which help anchor the stem to the soil.

    10. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Some species have a few, long water-conducting cells in their stems. • Mosses usually grow in dense carpets of _________ of plants.

    11. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Some have upright stems; others have creeping stems that hang from steep banks or tree branches. • Some mosses form extensive mats that help ________ erosion on exposed rocky slopes. • Moses grow in a wide variety of __________.

    12. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • They even grow in the _____ during the brief growing season where sufficient moisture is present. • A well-known moss is Sphagnum, also known as ___ ____.

    13. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • This plant thrives in acidic bogs in northern regions of the world. • It is harvested for use as ____ and is a commonly used soil additive.

    14. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Another division of nonvascular plants is the liverworts, or _______. • ________ are small plants that usually grow in clumps or masses in moist habitats.

    15. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • The flattened body of a liverwort gametophyte is thought to resemble the shape of the lobes of an animal’s _____. • A liverwort can be categorized as either ______ or leafy.

    16. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • The body of a thallose liverwort is called a _______. It is broad and ribbon-like and resembles a fleshy, lobed leaf. • Thallose liverworts are usually found growing on ____ soil.

    17. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Leafy _______ grow close to the ground and usually are common in tropical jungles and areas with persistent fog. • Their stems have flat, thin leaves arranged in ___ rows—a row along each side of the stem and a row of smaller leaves on the stem’s lower surface. • Liverworts have ______ that are composed of only one elongated cell.

    18. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • ____________ are the smallest division of nonvascular plants, currently consisting of only about 100 species. • Also known as _______, these nonvascular plants are similar to liverworts in several respects.

    19. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Sporophyte with sporangium (2n) • Hornworts have a _____ body. • The _________ of a hornwort resembles the horn of an animal. Gametophyte (n)

    20. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Another feature unique to hornworts is the presence of one to several __________ in each cell of the sporophyte depending upon the species. • Unlike other ________ plants, the hornwort sporophyte, not the gametophyte, produces most of the food used by both generations.

    21. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Fossil and genetic evidence suggests that liverworts were the ____ land plants. • Fossils that have been positively identified as nonvascular plants first appear in rocks from the early _______ Era, more than 440 million years ago.

    22. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • _______ suspect that nonvascular plants were present earlier than current fossil evidence suggests. • Both nonvascular and vascular plants probably share a ______ ancestor.

    23. 22.2 Section Objectives – page 581 Section Objectives: 22.2 • Evaluate the significance of plant vascular tissue to life on land. • Identify and analyze the characteristics of the non-seed vascular plant divisions.

    24. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • The obvious difference between a vascular and a nonvascular plant is the presence of vascular tissue. • Vascular tissue is made up of tubelike, elongated cells through which ____ and ______ are transported. • Vascular plants are able to adapt to changes in the availability of water, and thus are found in a variety of habitats.

    25. ____ transports water and dissolved substances other than sugar throughout the plant. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Phloem Xylem _________transports dissolved sugar throughout the plant. Cambium Cambium produces xylem and phloem as the plant grows.

    26. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • Vascular plants, like all plants, exhibit an ________ of generations • Unlike nonvascular plants, the spore-producing vascular sporophyte is ______ and larger in size than the gametophyte. Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (n)

    27. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • The mature sporophyte does not depend on the ___________ for water or nutrients. Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (n)

    28. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • A major advance in this group of vascular plants was the adaptation of leaves to form structures that protect the developing ____________ cells. • In some non-seed vascular plants, sporebearing leaves form a compact cluster called a ________.

    29. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • A fern gametophyte is called a __________. • __________ are relatively small and live in or on the soil. • ________ and ________ develop on the gametophyte. • ____ are released from antheridia and require a continuous film of water to reach eggs in the archegonia.

    30. Egg Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Archegonium Prothallus Rhizoids Sperm Antheridium

    31. ________ are commonly called club mosses and spike mosses. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • Their leafy stems resemble ____ gametophytes, and their reproductive structures are club or spike shaped. • However, unlike mosses, the sporophyte generation of the lycophytes is ____________.

    32. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • It has roots, stems, and small leaflike structures. • A ______ vein of vascular tissue runs through each leaflike structure. • The stems of lycophytes may be upright or creeping and have roots growing from the base of the stem.

    33. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • The club moss, _______, is commonly called ground pine because it is evergreen and resembles a miniature pine tree. • Some species of ground pine have been collected for decorative uses in such numbers that the plants have become endangered.

    34. ___________, or horsetails, represent a second group of ancient vascular plants. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Early horsetails were tree-sized members of the forest community. Today’s arthrophytes are much smaller than their ancestors. There are only about 15 species in existence, all of the genus _________.

    35. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • The name horsetail refers to the bushy appearance of some species. • These plants also are called scouring rushes because they contain _____, an abrasive substance.

    36. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • Most horsetails are found in marshes, in shallow ponds, on stream banks, and other areas with damp soil. • The stem structure of horsetails is ribbed and hollow, and appears jointed. • At each joint, there is a ______ of tiny, _______ leaves.

    37. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • Arthrophyte spores are produced in ________ that form at the tips of non-photosynthetic stems. • After the spores are released, they can grow into gametophytes with antheridia and ________.

    38. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • According to fossil records, ferns—division______—first appeared nearly 375 million years ago. • Ancient ferns grew tall and treelike and formed vast forests.

    39. Ferns range in size from a few meters tall, like tree ferns, to small, floating plants that are only a few centimeters in diameter. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Some ferns inhabit dry areas, becoming dormant when moisture is scarce and resuming growth and reproduction only when water is available again.

    40. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • As with most vascular plants, it is the ______ generation of the fern that has roots, stems, and leaves. • The part of the fern plant that we most commonly recognize is the __________ generation. • The gametophyte in most ferns is a thin, flat structure that is __________ of the sporophyte.

    41. In most ferns, the main stem is underground. This thick, underground stem is called a rhizome. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 The leaves of a fern are called fronds and grow upward from the rhizome. Fronds The fronds are often divided into leaflets called pinnae, which are attached to a central rachis. Rhizome The branched veins in ferns transport water and food to and from all the cells. Root

    42. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • The leaves of a fern are called fronds and grow upward from the ______. • The fronds are often divided into leaflets called _____, which are attached to a central ______. • The branched veins in ferns transport water and food to and from all the cells.

    43. Fern spores are produced in structures called __________. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • Clusters of sporangia form a structure called a _____ (plural, sori). Sori are usually found on the underside of fronds but in some ferns, spores are borne on modified fronds.

    44. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • The earliest evidence of non-seed vascular plants is found in fossils from early in the __________ Period, around 375 million years ago. • Many of these species of non-seed vascular plants died out about 280 million years ago —a time when Earth’s climate was cooler and drier.

    45. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 • Today’s non-seed vascular plants are much smaller and less widespread in their distribution than their prehistoric ancestors. • The evolution of vascular tissue enabled these plants to live on land and to maintain larger body sizes in comparison with nonvascular plants.

    46. 22.3 Section Objectives – page 588 Section Objectives: 22.3 • Identify and analyze the characteristics of seed plants. • Analyze the advantages of seed and fruit production.

    47. Some vascular plants produce seeds in which reduced ________ plants are enclosed within a protective coat. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 In seed plants, as in all other plants, spores are produced by the s__________ generation. These spores develop into the ____ and ______ gametophytes.

    48. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 • The male gametophyte develops inside a structure called a ____ ____ that includes sperm cells, nutrients, and a protective outer covering. anther stamen filament

    49. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 • The female gametophyte, which produces the egg cell, is contained within a sporophyte structure called an _____. anther stigma stamen filament style pistil ovary ovule

    50. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 • The union of the sperm and egg, called __________, forms the sporophyte ______. • Because they do not require a continuous film of water for fertilization, seed plants are able to grow and reproduce in a wide variety of habitats that have limited water availability.