QUIT 23 C H A P T E R An Era of Social Change CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality 1 SECTION MAP Women Fight for Equality 2 SECTION GRAPH Culture and Counterculture 3 SECTION VISUAL SUMMARY
CHAPTER OBJECTIVE HOME 23 C H A P T E R An Era of Social Change To understand the sweeping social protest movements of the 1960s and the quest for radical change initiated by Latinos, Native Americans, women, and young people
HOME 23 C H A P T E R An Era of Social Change I N T E R A C T W I T H H I S T O R Y In the late 1960s, a new breed of youth known as the counterculture rejects the fashions, traditions, and morals of American society. Minority groups assert their equal rights, demanding changes to longstanding practices and prejudices. Women protest forms of oppression and male privileges that have “always,” it seems, been taken for granted. Many Americans begin to feel as if the whole nation has been turned on its side. How much can a society change? Examine the Issues • Does every individual have a responsibility to follow the unwritten rules of society? • What are the positive and negative aspects of change?
TIME LINE 1962César Chávez and Dolores Huerta found the National Farm Workers Association. 1962Chinese forces invade India. 1964Lyndon B. Johnson is elected president. 1970Anwar el-Sadat becomes president of Egypt. 1972Earthquake kills 10,000 in Nicaragua. 1972Richard M. Nixon is reelected. 1970Political party La Raza Unida is formed. Grape boycott forces growers to sign contracts with United Farm Workers. 1966National Organization for Women (NOW) is formed. 1967Six-Day War between Israel and Arab nations. 1963Civil war breaks out between Greeks and Turks on Cyprus. 1968Richard M. Nixon is elected president. 1973Native Americans stage protest at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. 1969President Charles de Gaulle of France resigns. HOME 23 C H A P T E R An Era of Social Change The United States The World
1 S E C T I O N Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality HOME MAP KEY IDEA The nation’s Latinos and Native Americans demand greater equality. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality •César Chávez •La Raza Unida •American Indian Movement (AIM) •United Farm Workers Organizing Committee HOME MAP OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW Campaigns for civil rights and economic justice won better representation and opportunity for Latinos and Native Americans. Latinos and Native Americans confronted injustices in the 1960s. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 1. Identify the broad similarities between the issues faced by Latinos and Native Americans during the 1960s, as well as the unique concerns of the two groups. Both Native Americans Poverty; victims of prejudice; high unemployment; great diversity in both groups; concerns over children’s education;pride in cultural heritage;second-class citizenship; political activism; militant factions Latinos Desire for greater assimilation Desire to remain outside mainstream society; greater autonomy continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 2. How would you judge whether an activist organization was effective? List criteria you would use. Think About: •UFWOC, MAPA, and La Raza Unida •AIM •the leaders and activities of these organizations ANSWER Strong leadership; clear-cut mission and goals; ability to enlist outside support; well-orchestrated demonstrations; unity among members; success in working for legislative measures and reforms continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 3. In what ways did the Latino campaign for economic and social equality affect non-Latino Americans? ANSWER UFWOC gains helped all farm laborers; bilingual education available to all non-native English speakers; establishment of Chicano studies programs at colleges and universities. continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 4. Vine Deloria, Jr., said, “ When you get far enough away from the reservation, you can see it’s the urban man who has no identity.” What do you think he meant by this? ANSWER Unlike Native Americans living on reservations, people living in cities have lost their identity. End of Section 1
2 S E C T I O N Women Fight for Equality HOME GRAPH KEY IDEA A new feminist movement emerges during the 1960s, as women fight to improve their opportunities and status in society. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
2 S E C T I O N Women Fight for Equality •Gloria Steinem •Phyllis Schlafly •Betty Friedan •feminism •National Organization for Women (NOW) •Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) HOME GRAPH OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW Through protests and marches, women confronted social and economic barriers in American society. The rise of the women’s movement during the 1960s advanced women’s place in the workforce and in society. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
2 S E C T I O N ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH Women Fight for Equality 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five key events relating to the women’s movement. 1964 1973 Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Supreme Court’s ruling in Roe v. Wade legalizes abortion. 1972 1966 1971 Ms. is founded; Congress passes Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) and bans sex discrimination in federally assisted educational programs and activities. National Organization for Women is formed. National Women’s Political Caucus is organized. continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N Women Fight for Equality ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH 2. What if the Equal Rights Amendment had been ratified? Speculate on how women’s lives might have been different. Think About: •rights addressed by the amendment •legal support that the amendment might have provided •possible reactions from groups opposing the amendment ANSWER Women might have won more sex-discrimination lawsuits; the “glass ceiling” phenomenon might have been less of a problem for professional women; ratification might have spurred a powerful male backlash; Phyllis Schlafly and other opponents of the ERA might have formed organizations to undermine the amendment. End of Section 2
3 S E C T I O N Culture and Counterculture HOME KEY IDEA Groups of disillusioned youths shun the social activism of the time and choose instead to “drop out” of society and establish their own way of life. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N Culture and Counterculture •counterculture •the Beatles •Woodstock •Haight-Ashbury HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The ideals and lifestyle of the counterculture challenged the traditional views of Americans. The music, art, and politics of the counterculture have left enduring marks on American society. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N Culture and Counterculture ASSESSMENT Lifestyle Impact on Society Beliefs HOME 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. For each category in the tree diagram, list examples of its relation to the counterculture. The Counterculture Rejection of mainstream society’s materialism and technology; opposition to war; vision of a society filled with peace, love, and harmony Rock ‘n’ roll music; outrageous clothing; drug use; communal living Pop art; men’s and women’s fashions, especially blue jeans; rock ‘n’ roll music; conservative movement continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N Culture and Counterculture ASSESSMENT HOME 2. A stereotype is a generalization made about a group. What stereotype do you think hippies might have formed about mainstream Americans? What stereotype do you think mainstream Americans might have formed about hippies? Think About: •Alex Forman’s comments in “A Personal Voice” •hippies’ values and lifestyle •mainstream Americans’ values and lifestyle ANSWER Stereotypes of mainstream Americans—greedy and materialistic; old-fashioned and narrow-minded; insensitive and intolerant; pro-war and ultraconservative Stereotypes of hippies—flamboyant and shallow; lawless and immoral; self-absorbed and unrealistic; radical, violent, and disruptive continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N Culture and Counterculture ASSESSMENT HOME 3. In your opinion, why didn’t the hippies succeed? ANSWER Members of the movement thought they could live on love alone. They did not give any thought to the practicalities of life, like earning a living and having food to eat. In the end, thousands of hippies lined up at government offices to collect welfare and food stamps. continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N Culture and Counterculture ASSESSMENT HOME 4. What role did the counterculture and antiwar movement play in helping Richard Nixon win the presidency? ANSWER Frightened by the discontent in the country, mainstream society voted for Nixon, the candidate who they thought would restore order. End of Section 3