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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion Section 2:Social Crises, War, and Revolution Section 3:Response to Crisis: Absolutism Section 4:The World of European Culture Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. How does architecture reflect history? The palace at Versailles, shown in this photo, was home to the kings of France from 1682 until 1790. In seventeenth-century Europe, Versailles was a symbol of Louis XIV’s absolute rule. In this chapter, you will learn about crises throughout Europe and the rulers who sought stability through absolute rule. • What are some famous government buildings that are tourist attractions in the United States? What do they symbolize? • Compare the symbolism of the palace at Versailles with the symbolism of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, shown on page 473. Chapter Intro

  4. Chapter Intro

  5. Chapter Intro

  6. Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion What might have motivated the religious and political conflicts between Protestants and Catholics? Chapter Intro 1

  7. Social Crisis, War, and Revolution What effect might social, economic, and religious conflicts have on European nations? Chapter Intro 2

  8. Response to Crisis: Absolutism What effect would the exercise of absolute power have on a nation? Chapter Intro 3

  9. The World of European Culture How might art, literature, and philosophy be influenced by the turbulence of the period? Chapter Intro 4

  10. Chapter Preview-End

  11. The BIG Idea Competition Among CountriesReligious and political conflicts erupted between Protestants and Catholics in many European nations. Section 1-Main Idea

  12. Content Vocabulary • militant • armada Academic Vocabulary • conflict • policy Section 1-Key Terms

  13. People, Places, and Events • King Philip II • Netherlands • William the Silent • Elizabeth Tudor • Scotland • Ireland • Huguenots • Henry of Navarre • Edict of Nantes Section 1-Key Terms

  14. A B Do you think religion is a justifiable cause for war? A. Yes B. No Section 1-Polling Question

  15. Spain’s Conflicts King Philip II championed Catholic causes throughout his lands, while England became the leader of Protestant nations of Europe. Section 1

  16. Spain’s Conflicts (cont.) • In the sixteenth century, religious wars broke out in Europe as Calvinists and Catholics became more militant. • King Philip II of Spain wanted to consolidate the lands of his empire–Spain, the Netherlands, and possessions in the Americas and Italy–under Catholicism. Height of Spanish Power Under Philip II, c. 1560 Section 1

  17. Spain’s Conflicts (cont.) • Philip II attempted to strengthen his control in the Netherlands by crushing Calvinism, but was resisted by a rebellion led by William the Silent. • In 1558, Elizabeth Tudor came to power in England. • The Church of England began to follow a moderate form of Protestantism and England became the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe. Section 1

  18. Spain’s Conflicts (cont.) • Philip II tried to invade England to restore Catholicism to the island nation. • In 1588, the Spanish armada was defeated by the faster English ships. Upon its return to Spain, the fleet was battered by storms en route around Scotland and Ireland. Route of the Spanish Fleet, 1588 Section 1

  19. Spain’s Conflicts (cont.) • By the end of Philip’s reign in 1598, Spain was not the great power that it appeared to be, and England began to create a world empire. Route of the Spanish Fleet, 1588 Section 1

  20. A B C D Why did Philip II send the Spanish Armada to England? A.To capture William the Silent B.To expand his lands C.To defend the French D.To restore Catholicism to England Section 1

  21. The French Wars of Religion Conflict between Catholics and Protestants was at the heart of the French Wars of Religion. Section 1

  22. The French Wars of Religion (cont.) • During the 1500s, France encountered a series of civil wars, known as the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598). • Huguenots were French Protestants influenced by John Calvin. About half the nobility were Huguenots, a political threat to the Crown. • The ultra-Catholics opposed the Huguenots and recruited large armies to fight them. Section 1

  23. The French Wars of Religion (cont.) • In 1589 a Huguenot political leader named Henry of Navarre succeeded to the throne as Henry IV, bringing the French Wars of Religion to an end. • Henry IV converted to Catholicism, but issued the Edict of Nantes, recognizing Catholicism as the state religion and giving Huguenots religious and political rights. France Section 1

  24. A B C D Why did Henry of Navarre convert to Catholicism? A.To be accepted by the majority of the population B.To follow the model of other French kings C.To become allies with the Spanish D.To appease the ultra-Catholics Section 1

  25. Section 1-End

  26. The BIG Idea Order and SecuritySocial, economic, and religious conflicts challenged the established political order throughout Europe. Section 2-Main Idea

  27. Content Vocabulary • inflation • witchcraft • divine right of kings • commonwealth Academic Vocabulary • restoration • convert Section 2-Key Terms

  28. People and Places • Holy Roman Empire • Bohemia • James I • Puritans • Charles I • Cavaliers • Roundheads • Oliver Cromwell • James II Section 2-Key Terms

  29. A B Is a civil war more destructive to a nation than a war between two countries? A. Yes B. No Section 2-Polling Question

  30. Crises in Europe Population decline in Europe and the hysteria of witchcraft trials contributed to economic and social problems in seventeenth-century Europe. Section 2

  31. Crises in Europe (cont.) • During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Europe witnessed severe economic and social problems. • Economic problems were caused by the loss of Jewish and Muslim artisans and merchants, economic problems in Italy, and currency policies in Spain. • One major economic problem was inflation, or rising prices. Section 2

  32. Crises in Europe (cont.) • Europe’s population growth during the sixteenth century increased the demand for food and land, while driving up prices. • Europe’s population had leveled off by 1620. War, famine, and plague led to declining population numbers. • Religious zeal and hunts for heretics were extended to witchcraft. Section 2

  33. Crises in Europe (cont.) • Fear of witchcraft led to the accusations and trials of over 100,000 people, mostly single or widowed women. Section 2

  34. A B C D What caused witchcraft trials during the seventeenth century? A.Unexplainable events that occurred in nature and to people B.The teachings of the Catholic Church C.The influx of other cultures D.Attempts to cleanse society of undesirables Section 2

  35. The Thirty Years’ War Started over religious conflicts, the Thirty Years’ War was sustained by political conflicts. Section 2

  36. The Thirty Years’ War (cont.) • The Thirty Years’ War was fought primarily in the HolyRomanEmpire. • It began between Catholics, led by the Hapsburg dynasty, and Protestant forces in Bohemia. • All of the major powers in Europe (except England) were involved in the war. Europe After the Peace of Westphalia, 1648 Section 2

  37. The Thirty Years’ War (cont.) • In 1648 the Peace of Westphalia ended the war and divided the Holy Roman Empire into independent states that could determine their own religion and foreign policy. • This brought an end to the Holy Roman Empire as a political entity. Section 2

  38. A B C D What was a cause of the Thirty Years War? A.Protestants wanted a Protestant king. B.The Peace of Augsburg did not recognize Calvinism. C.Calvinist nobles invaded Bohemia. D.Spain and France tried to unite Europe. Section 2

  39. Revolutions in England Civil war raged over what roles the king and Parliament should have in governing England. Section 2

  40. Revolutions in England (cont.) • James I, the king of Scotland, came to power with the death of Queen Elizabeth. The Stuart line of rulers began in 1603. • James I believed in the divine right of kings. This contradicted the beliefs of most Englishmen, who accepted that the king and Parliament ruled England together. Section 2

  41. Revolutions in England (cont.) • When CharlesI came to the throne, many Puritans were upset that he attempted to put more rituals into the Church of England. This led thousands of Puritans to leave for America. • In 1642 England was faced with a civil war between the king’s soldiers, known as Cavaliers, and the Roundheads under OliverCromwell. Section 2

  42. Revolutions in England (cont.) • Cromwell’s forces were victorious, and Charles II was executed. • In 1649 England was declared a commonwealth. • After Cromwell’s death in 1658, England restored the Stuart line of rulers with Charles II. • Charles II ruled until his death in 1685, when James II ascended the throne. Section 2

  43. Revolutions in England (cont.) • James II was a devout Catholic. Parliament objected to his policies of appointing Catholics because its members were afraid a Catholic dynasty might be possible. • In 1688 English nobles invited William and Mary of Orange, who were Protestants, to invade England. • William and Mary were offered the throne and accepted the English Bill of Rights. Section 2

  44. Revolutions in England (cont.) • Bill of Rights: • Parliament could make laws and levy taxes. • Armies could not be raised without the consent of Parliament. • Citizens could keep arms and have a jury trial. Section 2

  45. Revolutions in England (cont.) • The Bill of Rights ensured that Parliament would be part of the English government and laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy. • Parliament also enacted the Tolerance Act of 1689, which granted Puritans, but not Catholics, the right of free public worship. Section 2

  46. A B C D How did Parliament secure the Bill of Rights for England? A.It defeated the Cavaliers. B.It offered the crown to William and Mary of Orange. C.The English people voted for it. D.James II was restored to the throne. Section 2

  47. Section 2-End

  48. The BIG Idea Competition Among CountriesFrance became the greatest power of the seventeenth century. Prussia, Austria, and Russia also emerged as great European powers. Section 3-Main Idea

  49. Content Vocabulary • absolutism • boyars • czar Academic Vocabulary • stability • authority Section 3-Key Terms

  50. People and Places • Louis XIV • Cardinal Richelieu • Prussia • Austria • Frederick William the Great Elector • Ivan IV • Michael Romanov • Peter the Great • St. Petersburg Section 3-Key Terms