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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:The Renaissance Section 2:Ideas and Art of the Renaissance Section 3:The Protestant Reformation Section 4:The Spread of Protestantism Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. How was architecture influenced by the Renaissance? Tremendous advances in architecture took place during the Italian Renaissance. Among the great masterpieces was the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica shown in the photo. Architect Donato Bramante began this project for Pope Julius II; however, Michelangelo completed the design of this structure. In this chapter you will learn about social, political, economic, and cultural effects of the Renaissance. • What are some other accomplishments for which Michelangelo is famous? • Compare and contrast the design of the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica to that of more modern domes such as the U.S. Capitol. Chapter Intro

  4. Chapter Intro

  5. Chapter Intro

  6. The Renaissance Why did the Renaissance begin in the Italian city-states? Chapter Intro 1

  7. Ideas and Art of the Renaissance What characterizes Renaissance art, such as Michelangelo’s David or da Vinci’s Mona Lisa? Chapter Intro 2

  8. The Protestant Reformation What conditions encourage the growth of revolutions? Chapter Intro 3

  9. The Spread of Protestantism What led to the formation of different Protestant churches? Chapter Intro 4

  10. Chapter Preview-End

  11. The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and ValuesBetween 1350 and 1550, Italian intellectuals believed they had entered a new age of human achievement. How does a society emerge from political, social and/or economic “dark ages”? Section 1-Main Idea

  12. Content Vocabulary • urban society • secular • mercenaries • dowry Academic Vocabulary • instability • decline Section 1-Key Terms

  13. People, Places, and Events • Italian Renaissance • Leonardo da Vinci • Milan • Venice • Florence • Francesco Sforza • Cosimo de´ Medici • Lorenzo de´ Medici • Rome • Niccolò Machiavelli Section 1-Key Terms

  14. TheItalian Renaissance As the Renaissance began, three Italian city-states were the centers of Italian political, economic, and social life. Section 1

  15. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) • The ItalianRenaissancelasted from 1350 to 1550. It was a time period in which Europeans believed they had witnessed a rebirth of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds. • Characteristics of the Renaissance: • The Renaissance was mainly led by an urban society, and Italian city-states came to dominate political, social, and economic life. • The Renaissance witnessed the rise of a secular viewpoint of wealth and material items. Section 1

  16. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) • The Renaissance occurred during a time of recovery from the disasters of the fourteenth century: the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power. • The Renaissance also stressed the individual ability of human beings. Well-rounded individuals, such as LeonardodaVinci, emphasized the belief that individuals could create a new social ideal. Renaissance Italy, 1500 Section 1

  17. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) • With the lack of centralized power, Italian city-states such as Milan, Venice, and Florenceplayed a crucial role in Italian economics and politics. • Milan’s location as a crossroads between the coastal Italian cities and the Alpine passes made it a very wealthy state. Renaissance Italy, 1500 Section 1

  18. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) • In 1434, Cosimo de’ Mediciand his family came to control Florence using their wealth and personal influence. Cosimo’s grandson Lorenzo de’ Medicilater ruled the city. • Powerful monarchial states in Europe were attracted to the wealth of the Italian city-states, and in 1494 Charles VIII of France occupied Naples in southern Italy. Renaissance Italy, 1500 Section 1

  19. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) • The Spanish replied to the Italian cries of assistance and engaged the French in a 30-year war on the Apennine Peninsula. • The turning point of the war came in 1527 when soldiers and mercenaries of Spain’s King Charles I, who had not been paid in months, sacked Rome. • Spain became the dominant force in Italy. Renaissance Italy, 1500 Section 1

  20. Machiavelli on Power Machiavelli’s The Prince has profoundly influenced political leaders. Section 1

  21. Machiavelli on Power (cont.) • Niccolò Machiavelliwrote a book that influenced political thought in Italy and eventually all of Europe. • In his influential work, The Prince, Machiavelli wrote about how to acquire and hold political power. He stated that a ruler must put the state first and not focus on moral principles. • Machiavelli’s rejection of popular Christian values would have a profound influence on the political leaders who followed. Section 1

  22. Renaissance Society Changes in the social classes occurred during the Renaissance. Section 1

  23. Renaissance Society (cont.) • Despite being the minority, nobles dominated sixteenth-century Europe during the Renaissance. • Nobles were expected to live up to certain ideals of European aristocracy. These ideals were expressed in Baldasarre Castiglione’s The Book of the Courtier. • Peasants continued to make up the bulk of European society but were gaining more independence during the Renaissance. Section 1

  24. Renaissance Society (cont.) • The growing numbers of townspeople were segregated into social groups. • Patricians dominated the social and economic aspect of urban areas. • Below them were the burghers, followed by the poverty-stricken workers and the unemployed. Section 1

  25. Renaissance Society (cont.) • The family bond provided a great deal of security to Renaissance-era Italians. • As in many societies, a dowrywas required in marriage contracts. • Arranged marriages • Father in charge – finances, decisions • Mother supervise household and children • Children considered adult only when fathers went before judge to free them Section 1

  26. Section 1-End

  27. The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and ValuesHumanism was an important intellectual movement of the Renaissance and was reflected in the works of Renaissance artists. Section 2-Main Idea

  28. Content Vocabulary • humanism • vernacular • fresco Academic Vocabulary • attain • style Section 2-Key Terms

  29. People, Places, and Events • Petrarch • Dante • Chaucer • Canterbury • Christine de Pizan • Raphael • Michelangelo • Flanders • Jan van Eyck • Albrecht Dürer Section 2-Key Terms

  30. A B Do you think it is important to learn another language? A. Yes B. No Section 2-Polling Question

  31. Italian Renaissance Humanism Humanism, based on study of the classics, revived an interest in ancient Latin; but many authors wrote great works in the vernacular. Section 2

  32. Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.) • A key intellectual movement of the Renaissance was humanism. • Humanists studied grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history. • Petrarchbelieved that intellectuals had a duty to live an active civic life and put their study of the humanities to the state’s service. • The humanist emphasis on classical Latin led to an increase in the writings of scholars, lawyers, and theologians. Section 2

  33. Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.) • The Italian author Danteand the English author Geoffrey Chaucerwrote in vernacular, making vernacular literature very popular. • Dante’s masterpiece was the story of the soul’s journey to salvation, called the Divine Comedy. • Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales used English dialect to tell the tale of pilgrims journeying to the tomb of Saint Thomas à Becket at Canterbury, England. Section 2

  34. Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.) • Christine de Pizanwrote in French dialect defending women and their ability to learn if given the same educational opportunities as men. Section 2

  35. Renaissance Education Education during the Renaissance focused on the liberal studies. Section 2

  36. Renaissance Education (cont.) • The humanist movement led to changes in education. • Humanists believed that individuals could attain wisdom and virtue by studying liberal studies. Physical education was also emphasized. • Liberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence, letters, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music. Section 2

  37. Renaissance Education (cont.) • Physical education: javelin throwing, archery, dancing, wrestling, hunting, and swimming. • The goal of humanist educators was to create complete citizens, not great scholars. • Humanist schools were the model for European education until the twentieth century. Section 2

  38. Italian Renaissance Art The Renaissance produced great artists and sculptors such as Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci. Section 2

  39. Italian Renaissance Art (cont.) • Renaissance artists sought to imitate nature through a human-focused worldview. • Frescoscreated the illusion of three dimensions, leading to a new realistic style of painting. • Realistic portrayal of the individual, especially nude depictions, became one of the chief aims of Italian Renaissance art. Section 2

  40. Italian Renaissance Art (cont.) • Advances in understanding human movement and anatomy led to advances in Renaissance sculpture and architecture. • The final era of Italian Renaissance painting (1490 to 1520) is known as the High Renaissance. • Leonardo da Vinci mastered the art of realistic painting and sought to advance to idealized forms of nature and humans. Section 2

  41. Italian Renaissance Art (cont.) • Raphaelwas a well known artist for his paintings of the madonna. His works reveal a world of balance, harmony, and order. • Michelangelowas a painter, sculptor, and architect. His depictions of idealized humans are meant as a reflection of divine beauty. Section 2

  42. A B C D How did Renaissance painters and sculptors portray humans? A.As masters of nature B.With religious overtones C.Realistic and human centered D.Powerful and strong Section 2

  43. The Northern Artistic Renaissance Northern European artists, especially those in the Low Countries, portrayed their world realistically but in a different way than did the Italian artists. Section 2

  44. The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.) • Artists in the Low Countries (today’s Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) also sought to portray their world realistically. • As opposed to Italian artists who perfected their work on the large, open spaces of Italian churches, Northern European artists painted on much smaller canvases. • One of the most important art schools in northern Europe was in Flanders, one of the Low Countries. Section 2

  45. The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.) • Artists such asJan van Eyckwere among the first to use and perfect oil painting. • Artists from northern Europe, such as German Albrecht Dürer, traveled to Italy to study the Italian standards and laws of perspective. Section 2

  46. A B C D What was the significance of Jan van Eyck’s use of oil paint? A.Oil was cheaper to use. B.Oil paints were available to everyone, not just Italians. C.Oil allowed for the use of more color. D.Oil allowed artists to paint anywhere. Section 2

  47. Section 2-End

  48. The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and ValuesIn northern Europe, Christian humanists sought to reform the Catholic Church, and Protestantism emerged. Section 3-Main Idea

  49. Content Vocabulary • Christian humanism • salvation • indulgence • Lutheranism Academic Vocabulary • precise • ignorant Section 3-Key Terms