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UNIT II HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY - ANCIENT TIMES (4000 BC – 1000AD ). MSc Nursing 2nd year. HISTORY PSYCHIATRY : (Text Book of postgraduate psychiatry) IMPORTANT VIEWS. Ayurveda (4000 BC) Indian system of scientific medicine and positive health

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slide1

UNIT II HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY

- ANCIENT TIMES (4000 BC – 1000AD)

MSc Nursing 2nd year

slide3

Ayurveda (4000 BC)

  • Indian system of scientific medicine and positive health
  • Psychiatry was labeled asbhut – vidya, (demonology, Charak Samhita, “Neither gods.. Nor demons)
slide4

Heriditory – causation of mental disorders

  • Psychiatry patient- treated with the sympathy and kindness.
  • Intractable disease were treated by brutal treatment with scalding ( hot water, iron or oil) whipping, tying with soft bandages and confinement.
  • Sushruta believed that passions an d strong emotions could not only cause mental disorders but also physical disorders that may require surgical intervention.
    • 2. SAGE AGASTRA (7th CENTURY BC)
    • Indian sage, practitioner of siddha system of medicine
    • Described 18 types of mental disorders, with treatment consisting giving bhasam (ash)
    • Wrote a treatise of mental disorders called as Agastiyar Kirigai Nool.
slide5

3. ALCMAEON ( 6th century BC)

    • A Greek physician priest; a student of pythagoras.
    • Related sensation to brain processes, and concluded that defects in reasoning must result from brain pathology and not from abstract spiritual phenomena.
    • 4. JIVAK (5th Century BC)
    • Indian physician
    • Practiced neurosurgery and performed that several operations on brain
  • 5. BHAGAVAD GITA ( 4th Century BC)
  • Psychotherapy and counseling
  • Guru Chela relationship (Dr- Patient)
slide6

6. HIPPOCRATES (460- 377BC)

  • Greek physician
  • Temperaments were believed to be caused by mixture of 4 bodily humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile) and were called as Sanguine phlegma tic, choleric and melancholic.
  • Disease- imbalance of these bodily humors
  • Attempted to classify mental disorders into categories recognizable as melancholia, post partum psychosis, phobias , delirium, dementia and hysteria
  • Hysteria- wandering uterus ( treatment marriage and sexual intercourse )
  • epilepsy was a sacred disease and believed natural causes to be responsible for the malady.
  • Stressed the importance of doctor – patients relationship
slide7

7. SOCRETES (469- 399 BC)

  • Greek philospher
  • Developed a unique method of teaching
  • 8. Plato ( 427-347BC)
  • Greek philosopher and rationalist
  • believed that the mental world consists of self exist ideas which are wholly independent of one’s life experience
  • Divided the soul of psyche into 3 parts (appetite, impulses and reason) located respectively abdomen, chest and head
  • Earlier he described 2 kinds of madness
  • The appetitive soul loses the domination of the rational soul.
  • The gods inspire the madness (divine madness)
slide8

Later, in phaedrus’, he described 4 kinds of madness

  • Prophetic madness
  • Telestic or Ritual Madness
  • Portic madness
  • Erotic madness
  • In the ‘Laws’, Definite norms of handling a ‘mental’ patient are given, e.g. confinement at home, exile, and even punishment by death (in extreme cases)
slide9

9.ARISTOTLE (384- 322 BC)

  • Greek physician; plato’s most influential student
  • Insisted that theories should be derived from observable data; thus believed in empiricism as opposed to plato’s rationalism.
  • Described ‘heart’ as the seat of all mental functions and therefore, the major agent of causation of mental disorders.
  • Described the various emotions or affections’ (eg., desire, joy, courage, anger, fear , hatred, and pity) in De Anima (a collection of 8 books, containing his views and theories on psychology.
  • Discussed ‘catharsis’ as a natural outlet for disturbing passions. Advocated that passions must be purged consistently to avoid violence.
slide10

10. Herophilus (335- 280 BC)

  • Greek physician
  • Known as the ‘father of Anatomy.’
  • Refuted the theory of body humors and believed anatomic defects within the brain to be responsible for mental disorders.
  • 11. KING ASHOKA (27 4- 235 BC )
  • Indian King; a great warrior who later embraced Buddhism.
  • His regime saw establishment of many hospitals. Mentally ill were humanely cared for, along with the physically ill, in these hospitals.
slide11

12. ASCELEPIADES (C 150 BC)

  • Roman (originally from Asia Minor) Philosopher- physician
  • Rejected the doctrine of bodily humors
  • Differentiated illusions from delusions
  • Subdivided the diseases into acute and chronic.
  • Advocated psychological modes of treatment and stressed the importance of environmental influences.
  • His teachings led to the cult of Asclepias (O: Asclepiades ), the god of healing. The Asclepian priest: used dream interpretation to suggest healing measures.
slide12

13. CICERO (106- 43BC)

  • Roman physician
  • Provided the 1st detailed description of passions, the strongest of which was ‘libido’ (violent passion).
  • 1st to use the term ‘libido’ in a psychological sense.
  • 14. AURELIUS CORNELIUS CELSUS (25BC – 5 0 AD)
  • Non – medical, Roman encyclopedist.
  • Described 6 types of insanity in his classic medical text book, ‘De Re Medica’.
  • Phrenitis, Melancholia ,Delirium,Lethargus (stupor),Epilepsy,Schizophrenia
  • Advocated ‘shocking harshaly’ as a method of treatment for the mentally ill.
  • This ‘shock treatment’ provided a rationale for the brutal treatment of the insane for centuries to come.
slide13

15. ARETAEUS (50- 130 AD)

  • Physician in Cappadocia, in Eastern Asia Minor (a part of the Roman Empire).
  • Believed mental disorders to be exaggerated normal processes
  • 1st to describe mania and depression as two phases of the same disorder, occuring in the same person
  • Also described paranoid syndromes.
  • Studied pre- morbid personalities of the mentally ill and conducted detailed follow up studies
  • Proposed an ‘eclectic’ approach in treatment.
slide14

16. SORANUS (93- 138)

  • Roman physician
  • Provided many accurate description of mental disorders (especially delusions of grandiosity, states of stupor).
  • 17. GALEN (130 – 200)
  • Physician in Asia (Now Turkey) of the Roman Empire.
  • Instrumental in the ‘rebirth’ and propagation of the humoral theory
  • Defined hysteria as a complex, in curable disease with an known physical cause. He located the seat of the disorder in cerebellum, calling it the site of ‘carnal love’.
  • His views had widespread acceptance and hindered the development of knowledge regarding mental disorders for many centuries.
slide15

18. ST. AUGUSTINE (354- 430)

  • Aurelius Augustinus, later known as St. Augustine, was born in Tagaste (Numidia,. North Africa).
  • Wrote the 1st book, ‘Confessions’, on psychological introspection based on self – analysis, though tinged with religious overtones.
  • 1st to describe vidibly, and in detail, his subjective emotional experiences without any reservations. Believed to be the forerunner of existentialism, phenomenology and psychoanalysis.
  • His views had tremendous influence on the Western intellectual world for at least the next 10 centuries
slide16

19. BAGHDAD MENTAL ASYLUM (C 705 )

  • 1st asylum for the mentally ill (exclusively) at Baghdad.
  • Provided humane treatment for the insane
  • RHAZES OR AL RAZI (865- 925)
  • Persian physician in the city of Baghdad.
  • known as the ‘Persian Galen’.
  • Believed mental disorders to have ‘organic’ ca uses
  • Proponent of psychological modes of treatment
  • Was the physician – in – child of the Baghdad hospital.
  • Wrote more than 200 volumes on subjects ranging from medicine and religion, to philosophy and astronomy.
slide17

PRIMITIVE AGES ( Demonology gods, and Magic)

Primitive people believed that the mentally ill were possessed by demons, who invaded the human body as a form of punishment for the sins which the afflicted person had committed. This theory was enlarged to such an extent that a demon was assigned to each of 36 parts of the body. Many of the so –called possessed individuals were abandoned. As misfits or worthless, to the forests where they were devoured by animals; others were burned at the stake. This practice appeared to be prompted by the belief that mentally ill were allied with the devil and capable of casting spells. (Margareta)

slide18

Five Different belief models shaped the reactions to mental illness of earl y humans and their primitive descendants.

  • The person’s soul has fled the body; and the wandering needed to be convinced to return.
  • A foreign body with magical powers entered the body; the cure required that it be extracted and neutralized.
  • Evil spirits had entered the body; these had to be exorcised before the victim could have relief.
  • The person had infringed on a taboo; the person and situation required ritualistic purification.
  • The person had sinned (Hebraic and other traditions attributed mental illness to sin). Requiring confession in the hope that sins could be expiated (Jeffrey and Hedlund).
slide19

Primitive era – treatment (Magic)

  • Primitive medicine or psychiatry was believed to cure if the client accepted and belived in the treatment. the effectiveness of healing was attributed to magic.
  • Ellenberger identified five key elements in the success of primitive medical haling (1970):
  • The healer occupied a central role in the society
  • Confidence was in the healer, not in the medication
  • Healers were learned people, as defined by culture
  • Psychological methods of healing were more important
  • The healing is almost always a public affair.
slide20

TREATMENT IN ANCIENT TIMES FOCUSED ON

1. EXORCISM : Prayer, noise – making and preparation of purgatives prepared from sheep dung and wine to be drunk by the patient.

slide21

2. OPERATION / TREPHENING:

It is a circular opening made on the skull with crude stone instrument for the evil spirit to escape from the brain( K. Lalitha).

slide22

DEMONOLOGICAL THEORY AND HEALERS

  • Priest
  • Physician
  • Psychologist
  • Magician
slide23

METHODS OF TREATMENT

  • Mystic rites
  • Incantation
  • Temples of healing
  • Shaman – wooden statue
  • Wearing talisman
  • A trephened skull
  • Exorcism
slide24

Rosenblatt records community response during the ancient times

Assistance : The least restrictive approach, provided food and money and often enables family to maintain as a unit

Banishment : Led to wandering lunatics living no one cared how and dying no one cared where.

Confinement : Most restrictive method of copying with the mentally ill. Who were often chained.

slide25

Age of rationalism (BC 500- 580)

Hyppocrates (460 – 357BC)

Charaka and Susruta (100AD) (Ayurvedic physician placed the mind in the heart )

Galen ( 130-200 AD)

slide26

The dark ages (500- 1000AD)

Demonology and witchcraft

slide28

Pre- christian Development ( 580 – 510 BC) ( Age of rationalism)

Pythagoras

Hippocrate

Plato

Aristotle

Herophilus

Asclepiads

Early christian period of 25BC – 1000 AD

Augustine , Aurelius, Cornelius Celsus, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Galen, Soranus, Caelius Aurelinus

slide30

The following categories of periods are identifiedThe period of persecution (1552BC-1400AD)The period of segregation(1545AD-1800AD)The humanitarian period (1745-1826AD)Beginning of scietific attitude(1796-1878)The period of prevention(1885-1960)

avicenna or abu alibn sina 980 1037
Avicenna or Abu Alibn Sina(980-1037)
  • Persian physician
  • Recognised that emotional upsets can cause certain physical and mental disorders
  • Used physiological methods of treatment
constantius africamus 1020 1087
Constantius Africamus(1020-1087)
  • A resident of carthage
  • Provided aa detailed description of melancholia
  • Believed melan cholia to be caused byan excess of black bile
  • Opined that prognosns better in acute,reactive conditions
  • Was instrumental in spreading Galenic views on depression
naja buddin unhammad c 1222
Naja buddin Unhammad ( c 1222)
  • Indian physician
  • Described 7 types of mental disorders
  • 1. Sauda-a-Tabee 2. MureeSauda
  • 3. Malikholia-a-Maraki 4. Haziyan
  • 5. Ishk 6. Nisyan
  • 7. Janoon

Methods of treatment – Bleeding and purging, nutritious food, massage, change of climate, avoidance of fear and irritation etc

moses maimonides 1135 1204
Moses Maimonides (1135-1204)
  • Arab scholar
  • Provided a detailed description of depression
  • Believed in mental hygiene program

St.Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

  • Believes soul being divine in origin, cannot commit any sin
  • Mental diseases sprang from organic factors
  • Attributed mental disorders to deficient use of reasons
bartholomaes anglicus 13 th century
Bartholomaes Anglicus (13th century
  • French Monk
  • First attempts to localize brain functions

Valencia Mental Asylum (1409)

  • First European mental hospital
  • Founded by Fr. Gilabert Jofre
  • Advocate humane treatment for the mentally ill
  • Separate unit for the mentally ill children
maulana fazulure lah hakim 1450
Maulana Fazulure-Lah Hakim (1450)
  • Indian physician
  • In charge of the Indian mental asylum opened by Mohammed Khilji at Dhar

Malleus Maleficarum (1487)

  • A book, title of which means “Witches Hammer”
  • Authorised by Heinrich Kraemer and Johann Sprenger
phillipus aureolus paracelsus 1493 1541
Phillipus Aureolus Paracelsus (1493-1541)
  • Austrian physician
  • Later latinized his name to Paracelsus
  • Provided a new classification of diseases in his book, “On diseases which deprive Man of Reason:
      • Vesamia 2. Lunacy 3. Insanity
  • Believed mental disorders to be natural diseases and not caused by demons.
  • Believed in bodily `magnetism’ and lunar phenomenon.
  • Advocated treatment with chemicals
  • There was complete absence of psychotherapy
juan louis vives 1492 1540
Juan Louis Vives(1492-1540)
  • Spanish Philosopher
  • Wrote the first model text book of psychology
  • Forerunner of Freud in emphazing the importance of psychological associations in forming emotions
  • Believed that painful, long forgotten memories can be recalled through reflective association
  • Popular for his humanitarian stance towards mental ill
teresa of avila
Teresa of Avila
  • Spanish nun
  • Suggested that a mind can be ill just as a body can be ill.

Johann Wayer (1552-1586)

  • Dutch physician
  • Regarded by some as the father of psychiatry
  • His book “De Praestigis Daemonum” vigorously attacked ‘Malleus’ refuting that the demons are the cause of mental disorders
  • Practiced psychotherapy
francis bacon 1521 1626
Francis Bacon (1521-1626)
  • Introduced the inductive method

Bethlehem Hospital (1547)

  • Introduced the inductive method
  • Founded as a priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem, London in 1247.
  • Henry VIII gave it a charter as a hospital for the cure of lunatics in 1547.
  • Name was later corrupted to Bedlam
timothy bright 1551 1615
Timothy Bright (1551-1615)
  • English physician
  • Wrote the first treatise on mental illness by an English physician
  • Classified melancholia into two
  • 1.Caused by humeral imbalance which can treated by diet and physical means
  • 2.Caused by psychological factors which can be treated by psychological treatment
felix plater 1536 1614
Felix Plater(1536-1614)
  • Swiss physician
  • Classified mental disorders on the basis of symptoms
  • 1Coernatio mentis
  • Mentis alienato
  • Mentis defatigatio
  • Imbecillitas mentis
  • Emphasize the importance of clinical observation
  • Believed brain damage to be the chief cause of mental disorders
  • First physician to separate medicine from philosophy
reginald scot 1538 1599
Reginald Scot (1538-1599)
  • English physician
  • Opponent of demonology
  • His book discovery of witch craft

Gockel (1547-1628)

  • German Philosopher
  • Coined the word psychology in 1590
  • Emphasized the importance of mind body relationship
robert burton 1577 1640
Robert Burton (1577-1640)
  • Oxford Dean of Divinity
  • Provided a comprehensive description of melancholy in his book “The Anatomy of Melancholy”

Rane Descartes (1596-1650)

  • A deductive rationalist
  • Introduced the concept of reflex arc to explain all animal and much human behaviour
  • Believed that man had a thinking substance, the soul, which did not interact with the body, thus creating a misleading mind body dichotomy
paulozacchia 1584 1659
Paulozacchia (1584-1659)
  • Italian physician and lawyer
  • First forensic psychiatrist
  • Suggested that a physician rather than a priest or lawyer should evaluate a patient’s responsibility for abnormal behaviour

Thomas Sydenhan (1624-1689)

  • English physician
  • Provided a comprehensive of the symptomatology of hysteria
  • Believed hysteria to be caused by disturbed animal spirits
  • First to draw attention to the symptom of neurosis
baruch spinoza 1632 1677
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
  • Portuguese philosopher
  • Challenged Descarte’s mind-body dualism and replaced it with a concept of psychophysiological parallelism

Thomas Willis (1622-1675)

  • English physician
  • Classified mental disorders into two groups

1. Caused by gross brain disease

2. Caused by disturbed animal spirits

  • Described clinical features of major mental disorders
  • First to describe the Circle of Willis in brain and first ot use the term reflex action
george ernst stahl 1660 1734
George Ernst Stahl (1660-1734)
  • German physician
  • First to make distinction between functional and organic illnesses
  • Propounded his theory of animism
  • Mental disorders were believed to be caused by inhibitions of `anima’ for bodily illnesses
george cheyne 1671 1743
George Cheyne (1671-1743)
  • English physician
  • Described depression as the “English Malady” and that there is nothing shameful about abnormal behaviour

Francois Brossier De Sarwages (1706-1767)

  • French Physician and Botanist
  • Arranged mental disorders overt symptoms in a manner similar to natural scientist who systematised plans and animals
bombay asylum 1745
Bombay Asylum (1745)
  • First lunatic asylum to be built in modern India
pennsylvania hospital 1751
Pennsylvania Hospital (1751)
  • First hospital in USA to accept mentally ill

Simon Andre Tissot (1728-1797)

  • Swiss physician
  • Emphasized the pathological effects of excessive masturbation
william cullen 1710 1790
William Cullen (1710 – 1790)
  • Scottish physician
  • First to use the term neurosis
  • Authorised a comprehensive text on nosology
  • Believed mental disorders to be due to a breakdown in the nervous system
robert whytt 1714 1766
Robert Whytt (1714-1766)
  • First Scottish neurologist
  • Classified neurosis into three

1. Hysteria

2. Hypochondriasis

3. Nervous exhaustion

William Battia (1703 – 1776)

  • English physician
  • First to initiate the teaching of clinical psychiatry in England
  • Made `treatment of madness’ a respected specialty
  • Distinguished mental disorders that arise form internal process
john aiken 1747 1822
John Aiken (1747-1822)

Williamsburg Asylum (1773)

  • English physician
  • Wrote first book on lunatic hospitals
  • First asylum in USA

Franz Anton Masmer (1734-1815)

  • Austrian physician
  • Borrowing from Paracelsus’ notion of planetary magnetism
  • Developed the concept of animal magnetism which later came to be known as hypnosis
abbe de faira 1756 1819
Abbe de Faira (1756-1819)

Johan Gottfried Langermann (1768-1832)

  • Resident of Goa
  • Learnt hypnosis from temple priests in India
  • Wrote the First doctor dissertation in psychiatry on the method of diagnosing and treating chronic mental diseases

Calcutta Asylum (1787)

  • First asylum in India for insane Europeans. Later in 1817, Surgeon Breadmore established the first private hospital in India at the outskirts of Calcutta
vincenzo chiarugi 1759 1820
Vincenzo Chiarugi (1759-1820)
  • Italian physician
  • One of the first to institute humane reforms in the treatment of mentally ill

Philipe Pinel (1745-1826)

  • French physician
  • Removed the chains of the mentally ill at the Bicetre asylum
  • Insisted on humane and moral treatment of the mentally ill
  • Classified mental disorders into 4 types

1.melancholia 2. mania

3.dementia 4. idiocy

madras asylum 1793
Madras Asylum (1793)
  • Private lunatic asylum with a bed strength of 20
  • In 1807, Surgeon James Dalton expanded the bed strength to 54

Monghyr Asylum (1795)

  • First lunatic asylum for insane Indian soldiers
johann christian rail 1759 1813
Johann Christian Rail (1759-1813)
  • German physician
  • First to use the word psychiatry
  • Founded the first psychiatric journal “Magazine fuir die psychische heilkunde’ (1805)
  • Performed anatomical studies of brain
  • Proposed a wide range of therapeutic measurement of the mentally ill which included music therapy, occupational therapy, drama therapy
william tuke 1732 1822
William Tuke (1732-1822)
  • English Quaker merchant and a member of “The society of Friend”
  • Founded the famous “York Retreat” for the treatment of mentally ill
benjamin rush 1745 1830
Benjamin Rush (1745-1830)
  • American physician
  • One of the signatories of the Declaration of independence of USA
  • Wrote the first systematic general text book of psychiatry
  • Known as the Father of American psychiatry
thomas sutton 1767 1835
Thomas Sutton (1767-1835)

Joseph Adams (1756-1818)

  • First description of delirium tremens
  • First description of delirium tremens
  • Wrote the first text book on the hereditary `properties’ of diseases

Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)

  • Founder of phrenology
  • Described 27 specific organs in the human brain
johann christian heinroth 1773 1843
Johann Christian Heinroth (1773-1843)
  • First to use the term psychosomatic
  • Fore runner of psychoanalysis

Isaac Ray (1807-1881)

  • One of the founder of American Psychiatric Association
  • Founder of American forensic psychiatry

Ernst Freihern Von Feuchtersleben 1807-1881)

  • Coined the word psychosis
  • Emphasised the role of mind in producing physical illness and effectiveness psychological treatment
jacques moreau de tours 1804 1884
Jacques Moreau De Tours (1804-1884)
  • Recognised the importance of dreams in understanding mental disorders

Jules Baillarger (1809-1890)

  • Describes mania and depression occuring as two phases

Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802-1887)

  • Worked towards the establishment of over 30 States supported hospital and reformed the asylums
slide65

MODERN ERA

End of 19th century and first 20th century

Pavlov

Emi Krapelin

Sigmund Freud

slide66

MODERN ERA

  • HOSPITAL CARE
  • Social aspect
  • Legal aspects
  • First mental hospitals

BEDLAM HOSPITAL

slide67

DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS AND TREATMENT :

  • Sigmund Freud : - Free association
  • Structure of mind
  • Defence mechanism
  • Psychosexual development

Carl Jung:

  • Arche types
  • Personality types
  • Word association technique.
  • Alfred Adler: Individual psychology
  • Karen Horney: Theory of neurosis, neurotic trends.
  • Sullivan :- Interpersonal relationship.
slide68

II. SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY

  • Structural school
  • Gestalt school
  • Behaviourists
  • Functional Schools
  • Psychoanalysis
  • III. ORGANIC OR BIOLOGICAL APPROACH:
  • Adolf Meyer - Psychobiology
  • Morgagni – Mental illness is organic
slide69

IV. DEVELOPMENT OF DRUG TREATMENT:

Cade (1949) – Lithium

Bernthsen (1883) – synthesis chlorpromazine.

Organic therapies:

Sakel (1933) – Insulin coma therapy.

Friedman & Wilcox (1942) – ECT.

V. PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES:

Sigmund Freud – Psychoanalysis & free association.

Maslow – Self actualization

Pietro pisani – Millieu therapy.

sigmund freud 1856 1939
SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939)
  • Founder of psychoanalysis
  • Interpretation of dreams
  • Free association
  • Psychodynamics
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Theory of infantile sexuality
  • Libido theory
  • Structural model of mind
  • Pleasure and reality principles
  • Therapeutic use of couch
  • Psychopathology of everyday life; slips of tongue
slide71

MORTON PRINCE (1854 – 1929)

  • Gave account of multiple personality
  • HAVELOCK ELLIS (1859-1939)
  • Authored “Studies in the Psychology of Sex”
  • PIERRE JANET (1859-2947)
  • Pioneer of psychodynamic psychiatry
  • Stressed the concept of personality integration
  • Made extensive use of the Cathartic treatment
  • IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV (1849-1936)
  • Conducted classical animal studies on conditioned reflexes – Origin of learning theories
  • Proposed symptoms of schizophrenia 45
slide72

LORD JOHN MORLEY (1905)

  • Secretary of state for India
  • Psychiatry was recognized as a medical specialty in India
  • More ‘central’ asylums were proposed and established
  • A new ‘Lunacy act’ was contemplated which finally came out in 1912.
  • ALOIS ALZHEIMER(1864-1915)
  • Reported 1st case of progressive dementia, (Alzheimer’s diseases)
slide73

EUGEN BLEULER (1857-1939)

  • Coined the term ‘schizophrenia’ to replace dementia precox
  • Described the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia
  • KARI JASPERS (1883-1969)
  • Founder of existential psychology
  • Published 1st edition of his, now classic ‘General psychopathology’
  • ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937)
  • 1ST defector from Freudian psychoanalysis
  • Founder of ‘individual psychology’
slide74

CARL GUSTAV JUNG (1875-1961)

  • Founder of in analytical psychology
  • Originated the word association tests
  • HERMANN RORSCHACH (1884-1922)
  • Swiss psychiatrist
  • Developed ‘INKBLOT TEST’
  • Development of other projective diagnostic test
  • OTTO RANK (1884-1939)
  • Developed the concept of birth trauma
  • Advocated his approach of will therapy
slide75

AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION (1902)

  • Established in 1844 as the Association of Medical Superintendents
  • Renamed American Psychiatric Association in 1921
  • ERNST KRETSCHMER (1888-1964)
  • Described 4 constitutions in relation to character, personality and mental illness
slide76

GRINDRA SHEKHAR BOSE (1886-1959)

  • Indian Psychiatrist
  • Developed his own technique of psychoanalysis later corresponded with Freud
  • Utilized the techniques in treatment of patients
  • Developed theory of ‘opposite wishes’
  • Published 1st psychoanalytic journal in India ‘Samiksha’ in 1921
  • Opened the 1st psychiatry unit in a general hospital at RG Kar Medical College Calcutta
  • JACOH KLAESI (1883)
  • Developed the continuous sleep treatment
slide77

AMERICANORTHO PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION (1924)

  • Interdisciplinary approach in prevention and treatment of mental illness
  • JULIUS WAGNER VON JAUREGG (1857-1940)
  • Developed ‘malarial treatment’ for GPI, for psychosis
  • KAREN HORNEY (1885-1952)
  • Developed ‘theory of neurosis’
  • Opposed the Freudian theory of castration complex
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ADOLF MEYER (1866-150)

  • Famous for his ‘common sense psychiatry’ approach
  • Founder of ‘Psychobiology
  • FRANZ ALEXANDER (1891-1964)
  • Conducted the research on psychosomatic illness
  • GORDON WILLARD ALLPORT (1897-1967)
  • Proposed a ‘trait theory’
  • RESERPINE USE (1931)
  • Two Indian Scientists, S. Siddiquil and Rafat Siddiqui in 1931
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MANFRED SAKEL (1900-1957)

  • Developed Insulin coma therapy for psychoses
  • LADISLAS LAZIO JOSEPH VON (1896-1964)
  • Used cardiazol, a camphor compound
  • Developed carbon dioxide therapy
  • ANTONIO CAETANO DE ABREAU FREIRE EGAS MONIZ (1874-1955)
  • Performed psychosurgery
  • Developed cerebral angiography as an investigative tool in neurology (1927)
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UGO CERLETTI (1877-1963)

  • Developed Electro – shock treatment (EST), known as ECT
  • Propounded the ‘acrogonine theory’ to explain the mechanism of action of ECT
  • LUCIO BINI (1908-1964)
  • Used ECT, in the treatment of psychoses
  • Developed the 1st ECT machine
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COLONEL O BERKELEY HILL (1939)

  • British psychiatrist practicing in India
  • Changed the name of mental asylums to ‘mental hospitals’ 1920
  • Opened the 1st private nursing home in India for mentally ill in 1937
  • Emphasized humane treatment of mentally ill
  • HELEN DEUTSCH (1884-1982)
  • Provided a psychoanalytical account of psychology ‘The Psychology of Women’
  • Described the ‘as-if personality’
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ANNA FREUD (1895-1982)

  • Contributed to ‘play therapy’ for children and ‘mechanisms of ego defense’
  • INDIAN PSYCHIATRIC SOCEITY (1947)
  • Inaugurated on Jan 7, 1947 at Delhi by Major RB Davis and Lt. Col. RJ Rosie.
  • INDIAN JOURNAL PSYCHIATRY (1949)
  • Renamed as Indian Journal of Psychiatry in 1958
  • JOHN F CADE (1912-1981)
  • Used lithium for the 1st time for manicexcitement
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ERIK H ERIKSON (1902-1997)

  • Described the stages of life cycle
  • Used ‘psychohistory’
  • Described ‘identity’ Vs. ‘role confusion’
  • JEAN P. L. DELAY (1907)
  • Used chlorpromazine,
  • Described the condition ‘neuroleptic’ malignant syndrome’ (NMS)
  • MAXWELL JONES (1907)
  • Originated the concept on ‘therapeutic community’
  • Era of ‘Social psychiatry
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HARRY STACK SULLIVAN (1892-1949)

  • Founder of ‘interpersonal school of psychiatry’
  • Described 6 stages in personality development
  • JEAN PIAGET (1897-1980)
  • Worked on the nature of children’s intellectual development.
  • Divided a child’s thought development into 4 stages
  • VIRGINIA E JHONSON (1925)
  • Originated dual sex therapy
  • BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER (1904-1990)
  • Originator of the operant conditioning model of learning theory.
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MENTAL HEALTH ACT (1987)

  • Drafted in 1949 at Allahabad by 3 psychiatrists: J Roy, RB Davis and Dr. Hasib.
  • After 38 years finally made Act No. 14 in 1987.
  • The new act replaces the Indian Lunacy Act of 1912.
  • Mental Health Act envisages a change in nomenclature, provision for mental hospitals.
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Comprehensive approach

TRENDS IN NURSING

Patient centered approach

Nurse patient relationships

Dynamic nursing approach

Working together

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DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHIATRY AND PSCHIATRIC NURSING IN INDIA:

1987 - Lunatic asylum in Bengal.

1873 – Mental hospital at Bangalore.

1912 – India Lunacy act passed.

1918 – Mental hospital at Ranchi.

1936 – 45 PG Programme in Psychiatry.

1987 – Indian mental health Act.

NIMHANS

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PSYCHIATRIC NURSING TODAY:

Development in profession

Development in

psychiatric nursing

Development in clinical practice

Development in Nursing theory

Development in women’s movement

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PSYCHIATRIC NURSING IN FUTURE:

  • Government support of services .
  • New activities within the private and public sector.
  • Nurse plays instrumental role.
  • Science will present a significant challenge.
  • Political issues.
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CURRENT EVENTS IN PSYCHIATRIC NURSING:

  • Sheltered work shops
  • Half way homes, foster homes.
  • Multi disciplinary approach.
  • Therapeutic strategies.
  • Open door policy
  • Walk in clinic
  • Mass media communication
  • Satellite clinics

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