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UNIT II HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY - ANCIENT TIMES (4000 BC – 1000AD ). MSc Nursing 2nd year. HISTORY PSYCHIATRY : (Text Book of postgraduate psychiatry) IMPORTANT VIEWS. Ayurveda (4000 BC) Indian system of scientific medicine and positive health
- ANCIENT TIMES (4000 BC – 1000AD)
MSc Nursing 2nd year
Primitive people believed that the mentally ill were possessed by demons, who invaded the human body as a form of punishment for the sins which the afflicted person had committed. This theory was enlarged to such an extent that a demon was assigned to each of 36 parts of the body. Many of the so –called possessed individuals were abandoned. As misfits or worthless, to the forests where they were devoured by animals; others were burned at the stake. This practice appeared to be prompted by the belief that mentally ill were allied with the devil and capable of casting spells. (Margareta)
Five Different belief models shaped the reactions to mental illness of earl y humans and their primitive descendants.
1. EXORCISM : Prayer, noise – making and preparation of purgatives prepared from sheep dung and wine to be drunk by the patient.
It is a circular opening made on the skull with crude stone instrument for the evil spirit to escape from the brain( K. Lalitha).
Assistance : The least restrictive approach, provided food and money and often enables family to maintain as a unit
Banishment : Led to wandering lunatics living no one cared how and dying no one cared where.
Confinement : Most restrictive method of copying with the mentally ill. Who were often chained.
Hyppocrates (460 – 357BC)
Charaka and Susruta (100AD) (Ayurvedic physician placed the mind in the heart )
Galen ( 130-200 AD)
Demonology and witchcraft
Rhazes ( 900 AD)
Pre- christian Development ( 580 – 510 BC) ( Age of rationalism)
Early christian period of 25BC – 1000 AD
Augustine , Aurelius, Cornelius Celsus, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Galen, Soranus, Caelius Aurelinus
The following categories of periods are identifiedThe period of persecution (1552BC-1400AD)The period of segregation(1545AD-1800AD)The humanitarian period (1745-1826AD)Beginning of scietific attitude(1796-1878)The period of prevention(1885-1960)
Methods of treatment – Bleeding and purging, nutritious food, massage, change of climate, avoidance of fear and irritation etc
St.Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
Valencia Mental Asylum (1409)
Malleus Maleficarum (1487)
Johann Wayer (1552-1586)
Bethlehem Hospital (1547)
Rane Descartes (1596-1650)
Thomas Sydenhan (1624-1689)
Thomas Willis (1622-1675)
1. Caused by gross brain disease
2. Caused by disturbed animal spirits
Francois Brossier De Sarwages (1706-1767)
Simon Andre Tissot (1728-1797)
3. Nervous exhaustion
William Battia (1703 – 1776)
Williamsburg Asylum (1773)
Franz Anton Masmer (1734-1815)
Johan Gottfried Langermann (1768-1832)
Calcutta Asylum (1787)
Philipe Pinel (1745-1826)
1.melancholia 2. mania
3.dementia 4. idiocy
Monghyr Asylum (1795)
Joseph Adams (1756-1818)
Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
Isaac Ray (1807-1881)
Ernst Freihern Von Feuchtersleben 1807-1881)
Jules Baillarger (1809-1890)
Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802-1887)
“The larger the Island of knowledge the longer the shoreline of wonder”
End of 19th century and first 20th century
Cade (1949) – Lithium
Bernthsen (1883) – synthesis chlorpromazine.
Sakel (1933) – Insulin coma therapy.
Friedman & Wilcox (1942) – ECT.
V. PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES:
Sigmund Freud – Psychoanalysis & free association.
Maslow – Self actualization
Pietro pisani – Millieu therapy.
TRENDS IN NURSING
Patient centered approach
Nurse patient relationships
Dynamic nursing approach
1987 - Lunatic asylum in Bengal.
1873 – Mental hospital at Bangalore.
1912 – India Lunacy act passed.
1918 – Mental hospital at Ranchi.
1936 – 45 PG Programme in Psychiatry.
1987 – Indian mental health Act.
Development in profession
Development in clinical practice
Development in Nursing theory
Development in women’s movement