Unit 4: Boom Times to Hard Times United States History, 1877-Present. Mr. Armstrong
Postwar Social Change Chapter 13
Bellringer • EQT Study Questions. • The American industrial growth of the late 1800’s was made possible by ________________ advances and financial investments. (Chapter 6, Section 1) • The _________________ and the ____________ were two technologies that revolutionized American communications in the late 1800’s. (Chapter 6, Section 1) • The Federal government contributed to the building of the _____________ railroad by awarding loans and land grants to private companies to build the railroad. (Chapter 6 Section 1) • During the late 1800’s, critics of powerful industrialists referred to them as “_______________________.” (Chapter 6, Section 2)
Bellringer • EQT Study Questions. • The American industrial growth of the late 1800’s was made possible by Technological advances and financial investments. (Chapter 6, Section 1) • The telegraph and the telephone were two technologies that revolutionized American communications in the late 1800’s. (Chapter 6, Section 1) • The Federal government contributed to the building of the transcontinental railroad by awarding loans and land grants to private companies to build the railroad. (Chapter 6 Section 1) • During the late 1800’s, critics of powerful industrialists referred to them as “Robber Barons.” (Chapter 6, Section 2)
Ch.13 Section 1: Society in the 1920’s • Setting the Scene • Industrialization and Immigration turned the United States into an urban nation. • The Great War accelerated those changes • The Flapper came to symbolize those changes.
Women’s Changing Roles • The Flapper Image • Short Hair • “Cloche” • Heavy Makeup • Smoking • Drinking
Women’s Changing Roles • Some simply adopted the style and not the attitude of a flapper for convenience. • Businesses remained prejudiced against women. • Women could vote in all elections as of 1920. • Many politicians feared that they would vote as a bloc.
Women’s Changing Roles • Early on, women did not exercise their right to vote for a number of reasons. (Read paragraph 2 on page 454 and find three reasons.) • Women who lived in rural areas or had children had to make arrangements to go vote. • Women’s families discouraged them from voting. • Some were not comfortable voting.
Women’s Changing Roles • Shepard-Towner Act of 1921- the first major federal welfare measure concerned with women’s and children’s health. • Equal Rights Amendment was first proposed in 1923 and stated that “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction.” • Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first women elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. • Who were the first two female governors? (Read next to last paragraph on page 454.) • Miriam A. Ferguson (TX) • Nellie Tayloe Ross (WY)
Americans on the Move • Demographics • are the statistics that describe a population, such as data on race or income. • In 1920 more people lived in urban areas than did in rural areas for the first time in American history. • During the 1920’s 6 million people moved from rural areas into the cities.
Americans on the Move • Effects of migration and urban prosperity (Read paragraphs 2 and 3 on page 455). • Attendance in public high schools rose. • Rural and Urban America split. • African Americans in the North. • Jim Crow Laws • New Job Opportunities
Americans on the Move • After the Great War masses of refugees applied for entry into the United States. Read the section titled “Other Migration” at the bottom of page 455, and answer these questions. • What areas of the world did Congress act to limit immigration into the United States from? • Southern and Eastern Europe, China, and Japan. • Employers turned to ___________ and __________ to fill low paying jobs. • Mexico and Canada • Define the term barrio. • Spanish speaking neighborhood.
Americans on the Move • Growth of Suburbs was aided by: • Trolleys • Buses • Automobile • During the 1920’s the bus replaced the trolley in many areas.
American Heroes • Charles Lindbergh- First man to fly non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean. • Amelia Earhart- First women to fly non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean. • Jim Thorpe- Olympic track star, Professional Football Player, Native American. • George Herman “Babe” Ruth- The Sultan of Swat.
Bellringer • 1.Congress passed the ____________ Antitrust Act in 1890 to promote fair industrial competition and growth.(Ch.6-2) • 2. Industrial Growth in the United States led to a concentration of wealth in the hands of a few ________.(Ch.6-2) • 3. Unlike the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) included in its membership only _________ workers. (Ch.6-4) • 4. Life for ______ , or people who farmed claims under the Homestead Act, was difficult because they often had to struggle even for the necessities (Ch.7-3) • 5. The combination of big business and new agricultural techniques in the West resulted in ______ farms. (Ch.7 -3)
Bellringer • 1.Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 to promote fair industrial competition and growth.(Ch.6-2) • 2. Industrial Growth in the United States led to a concentration of wealth in the hands of a few industrialists.(Ch.6-2) • 3. Unlike the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) included in its membership only skilled workers. (Ch.6-4) • 4. Life for homesteaders, or people who farmed claims under the Homestead Act, was difficult because they often had to struggle even for the necessities (Ch.7-3) • 5. The combination of big business and new agricultural techniques in the West resulted in bonanza farms. (Ch.7 -3)
The Mass Media • Mass Media- print, film, and broadcast methods of communicating information to large numbers of people. • Movies • Silent Films • Talkies
The Mass Media • Newspapers and Magazines • Read the paragraph with the heading “Newspapers and Magazines” and answer this question: What happened to the amount of newsprint in the U.S. between 1914 and 1927? • Newsprint roughly doubled!! • Tabloid- is a compact newspaper that relies on large headlines, few words, and many pictures to tell a story.
The Mass Media • Radio • Italian physicist Guglielmo Marconi invented a means of wireless communication using radio waves in 1896. • The nations first commercial radio station was Pittsburgh’s KDKA.
The Mass Media • Writing Question: • How did the rise of Mass Media outlets such as movies, newspapers, magazines, and radio lead to a distinct American culture? • Write a short paragraph that answers the above question. If need be, read the section titled “Mass Media” on page 455-7 to help you answer the question.
The Jazz Age • Read the first paragraph of the section titled “The Jazz Age” on page 461 and answer the following question: What two factors led to the popularity of jazz in the 1920’s? • The great African American migration. • The growing radio audience.
The Jazz Age • Jazz grew out of African American music of the South, especially ragtime and blues. • Duke Ellington • Louis Armstrong • George Gershwin
“Nighthawks” Edward Hopper
The Jazz Age • Lost Generation • Ernest Hemmingway • F. Scott Fitzgerald • The Harlem Renaissance • Langston Hughes • Read “I, Too,” by Langston Hughes on page 465. • What is Hughes describing?
Prohibition • Three main goals of Prohibition (Read paragraph 1 under the heading “Prohibition” and write down the Three main goals.) • Eliminate drunkenness and the resulting abuse of family members and others • Get rid of saloons, where prostitution, gambling, and other forms of vice thrived. • Prevent absenteeism and on-the-job accidents stemming from drunkenness.
Prohibition • The Volstead Act was passed in 1919 to provide a system for enforcing the 18th Amendment. • Since beer, liquor, and wine could no longer be sold, produced, or transported in the United States, Americans turned to bootleggers to get their fix. • Bootleggers transported their product to restaurants, nightclubs, and speakeasies.
Prohibition • Define Speakeasies • Bars that operated illegally. • Prohibition also resulted in organized crime. • Al “Scarface” Capone
Issues of Religion • During the early part of the 20th century challenges to traditional beliefs came from several directions. • Science and technology were taking a larger role in society. • War and the widespread problems of modern society were causing people to question whether God took an active role in human affairs or if God even existed. • Some scholars were saying that the Bible was a document written by humans and that it contained contradictions and historical inaccuracies.
Issues of Religion • The issue of whether or not to teach evolution became a big dividing line between rural and urban communities. • Fundamentalists believed that the Bible was literally true and that every story in it actually took place as described. • Scopes Trail • Tennessee passed a law that banned the teaching of evolution, and science teacher challenged the law by defying it and getting arrested. • William Jennings Bryan • Clarence Darrow
Racial Tensions • In the summer of 1919 mob violence broke in 25 cities between whites and blacks. • This Summer became known as the “Red Summer.” • Read the last paragraph on page 471 to yourself and reflect on what you read.
Racial Tensions • Colonel William J. Simmons, revived the Ku Klux Klan in 1915. • The Klan not only turned their hatred towards the African Americans, but also carried out crimes against Jews, Catholics, and immigrants.
Racial Tensions • The NAACP worked to get 2 things accomplished in the 1920’s. Read the section titled “Fighting Discrimination” on page 472. • Worked to pass anti-lynching laws. • Worked to protect the voting rights of African Americans.
Racial Tensions • Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. • Garvey sought to build up African American’s self respect and economic power. • He also urged African Americans to return to Africa.
Politics and Prosperity Chapter 14
Bellringer • 1.) The rapid expansion of urban areas in the late 1800’s resulted from both ___________ and the increased productivity of factory jobs.(Ch8-3). • 2. By 1910, nearly 60% of American children were in school because many states began requiring school __________ by law. (Ch9-1). • 3. As _____ began to make their way into professional jobs, they worked mainly in education, health care, and social work. (Ch9-4)
Chapter 14 Section 1: A Republican Decade • The Red Scare • Labor Strikes • Republican Leadership • The Harding Presidency • The Coolidge Presidency • The Election 1928
The Red Scare • The Russian Revolution • Czar Nicholas II abdicated in March of 1917. • Alexander Kerensky takes power, but his decision to stay in the war hurt him politically. • Revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin leads the Bolsheviks in the overthrow of Kerensky. • They were known as the “Reds” because of their red flag.
The Red Scare • The Bolsheviks took over all privately owned land and put it under the control of the government. • Civil war broke out and eventually the Reds won. • 2 years later the country would become known as the United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). • Lenin made communism the official ideology of the Soviet Union.
The Red Scare • Communism is openly hostile to the views and beliefs of Americans. • Capitalism, private ownership of land and business, and 1st Amendment rights. • For Lenin communism meant: (Read paragraph #6 on page 481 and list what communism meant.) • The govt. owned all land and property • A single political party controlled the govt. • The needs of the country come before the rights of individuals.
The Red Scare • American Fears • Russia’s intention to spread communism to other countries alarmed many Americans. • Already leery of Europeans because of WWI Americans worried that immigrants might bring radical ideas into the U.S.
List the reasons for the Red Scare in the 1st full paragraph on page 482. • Communists tried to overthrow the new German govt. in 1919. • Communists came to power in Hungary. • Strike in Seattle, and the mayor proclaimed them “revolutionists.” • Bombs in the mail.
The Red Scare • Schenckv. U.S • During WWI Schenck wrote draftees and urged them to not report for duty. • He was convicted under the Espionage Act, and he eventually appealed. • The Court decided that the government could silence free speech when it is a matter of “clear and present danger.” • They compared it to falsely shouting “Fire!” in a crowded theater.
The Red Scare • Gitlow v. New York • Bernard Gitlowwas convicted of “criminal anarchy” because he published calls to overthrow the govt. by force. • Prior to this case the federal government argued that the bill of rights protected individuals only from the federal govt. not the states. • When they upheld Gitlow’s conviction they also affirmed that the 14th amendment applied to the states as well.
The Red Scare • The Palmer Raids • Targeted Socialists, Communists, and anarchists. • “Any movement, however cloaked or dissembled, designed to undermine the govt., will be met with unflinching, persistent, aggressive warfare.” • Palmer, December 31, 1919. • On Jan 2, 1920 federal agents in 33 cities carried out raids and thousands were arrested.
The Red Scare • Sacco and Vanzetti • Two Italian immigrants that were anarchist, and were arrested in connection with a double murder. • Many people believed they were arrested simply because they were immigrants with radical beliefs. • Eventually they were convicted, and sentenced to death.
Labor Strikes • Many Americans believed that Communists were behind the labor strikes. • However, most workers went on strike because the standard of living they had achieved during the War had declined. • The Boston Police Strike • Steel and Coal Strikes
Bellringer • 1.) A major economic argument for imperialism was that the United States needed new __________ markets for its goods (Ch10-1). • 2.) As a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States annexed the ___________, Guam, and Puerto Rico (Ch10-2). • 3.) The central message of the Roosevelt Corollary was that the U.S. would use __________ to prevent intervention in the affairs of neighboring countries (Ch10-3). • 4.) Journalists known as _________ worked at exposing political and business corruption (Ch11-1). • 5.) Upton Sinclair’s novel entitled The Jungle exposed dangerous workplace conditions in the _____________ industry (Ch11-1).