MEDIEVAL EUROPE World History
LEARNING TARGETS • To describe the characteristics of the MEDIEVAL PERIOD in world history • To explain the RISE of the CHURCH as a dominant institution during the medieval times
Definitions: Medieval Times • The period between the Fall of Rome in 476 AD and the age of exploration in the 15th Century • Also known as the Middle Ages & Dark Ages • Comes from Latin word medius (middle) and aevum(age or period)
UPDATING OUR TIMELINE Age of Exploration Ancient Period Fall of Rome Middle Ages Western Cvilization: Rome and Greece 476 AD Dark Ages 15th Century AD
WHY WAS IT CALLED THE DARK AGES? What are the characteristics of the dark ages?
Characteristics: • A period of DISORDER and CHAOS • A period of BARBARIC INVASIONS burning and plundering towns and cities
Who were these barbaric groups? • Germanic/Teutonic Tribes (ancestors of the Germans, Dutch, Swedes, Norwegians, French, English, etc.) 1. Goths (Visigoths/Ostrogoths) 2. Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards 3. Franks 4. Angles and Saxons 5. Vikings 6. Magyars 7. Huns
Why were they called Barbaric? • Most of these tribes were rough and ignorant - uncivilized as compared to the citizens of the Roman empire • Laws were based on superstitious and tribal customs • They were fierce and warlike; still worship gods such us Odin (chief Scandinavian god) and Thor (god of Thunder) • Most couldn’t read and write
continuation of characteristics… • Agricultural activities practically ceased • Roads and bridges were ruined • Travel became very difficult with robbers infesting the highways
Trade and commerce were seriously affected by the chaotic conditions • Schools and libraries and temples were destroyed. • There was cultural stagnation and social upheaval everywhere
The series of Germanic invasions led to the weakening and decline of the Roman Empire • The people of Europe needed an institution which will serve as a means of SOCIAL CONTROL and PROTECTION
Thus the Rise of the Church! • Emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the empire • The Roman empire’s seat of government was then transferred to Constantinople (present day Turkey) named as THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE headed by Emperor Constantine
The Western Roman Empire collapses. The rest of the Roman Empire carries on. Eventually, we will call it the Byzantine Empire (but they always called themselves Romans).
Brief overview • Christianity was introduced throughout the empire by the disciples of Christ specifically St. Peter (the chief Apostle of Christ), even before the fall of Rome. • The spread of the belief became widespread because the Roman gods could no longer provide security, hope and comfort during the dark ages
THE RISE OF THE CHURCH(The Roman Catholic Church) Why did it become the dominant institution during the medieval period?
Dominance of the Church: 4 factors • It taught that salvation depended on its sacraments • It had the only strong authority in the empire • It controlled education • It controlled land ownership
Medieval people, jaded in the chaos and disorder of their societies found little joy in their physical world – and so they became spiritual. • The bishops and priests provided moral guidance and practical leadership in the population
The church fed the poor and took care of the sick, the widows and the orphans • The people looked up to the church for order, authority and help – only the church could provide at that time
The Organization of the Church POPE - office of the Papacy CARDINALS ARCHBISHOP BISHOP PARISH PRIEST Popes were more powerful than Kings The church was very Hierarchical
The church as an organization • like that of an empire – own system of laws, courts and taxes - it collects 10% of all farm produce • Its clergy is exempt from paying taxes to the kings and emperors • It gives direction on how men should behave
The ultimate power of the church was to EXCOMMUNICATE – to cut a man off from God and condemn his soul to eternal torment (recall the movie, Season of the Witch) What were the scenes depicting the authority of the Church?
The medieval churches acquired much land in Europe – most of these have been donated by rich landowners. • Many gave land to the church in hopes of increasing their chances of being spiritually saved.
THE MONASTERY • A self-supporting organization in support of the church’s missionary activities. • Served as school, hospital and place of worship- run by monks • Center of scholarship – most of the educated men at that time were the church men
MONASTICISM: the way of life of the monks and nuns: seclusion from the worldly life famous: St. Benedict and the Benedictine order • We owe our knowledge of the past to the monks because they developed a system of writing manuscripts and documented the medieval way of life
RECAP MEDIEVAL PERIOD THE DARK AGES DOMINANCE OF THE CHURCH AS AN INSTITUTION
Learning Targets • To discuss the feudal set up during the medieval times • To describe the manorial lifestyle • To explain knighthood and chivalry
Definitions: FEUDALISM A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service through a system of land ownership A land-based economy – the political, economic and social security of the people is based on land
Life in Medieval Europe Feudal pyramid “Fiefs and peasants”: What are fiefs ? Class lines between the upper and lower levels were clear and sharp
THE FEUDAL PYRAMID OF POWER KING LOYALTY AND SERVICE LAND POWERFUL NOBLES LAND AND PROTECTION LOYALTY AND MILITARY SERVICE LESSER NOBLES (KNIGHTS) LABOR PROTECTION SERFS AND FREEMEN 33
Definitions: The manorial system • MANOR: The territorial unit in a feudal society • System of landlord-tenant relationship • Medieval life was centered on a manor
Obligations of the tenants to the lords: • Gives the large proportion of his harvest to his lord • Labors 3x a week in the fields • Required to build bridges and repair roads for the lord • Gives farm products to the lord: cheese, pork, eggs and wood
Life in Medieval Europe The Manor: a self-sufficient economic unit
III. Life in Medieval Europe What does fallowmean e Western Civilization Begins ? The Manor: a self-sufficient economic unit IMAGINE FARMVILLE
III. Life in Medieval Europe A well-off peasant’s hut: after the invention of the fireplace
Pieter Brueghel. The Wheat Harvest New York, Metropolitan Museum III. Life in Medieval Europe e Western Civilization Begins
THE CASTLE • For fortification and protection purposes • Usually overlooks the owner’s farmlands and the villages where the serfs live • Usually where the lords and nobles live
The interior of the castle had heavy walls and small windows, making them cold, damp and dark. • It is equipped with water and emergency food supplies to sustain the lord and his family, the villagers and the knights and soldiers through sieges that often lasted for weeks.
Towns need an economic basis. What is the basis for this town III. Life in Medieval Europe ? e Western Civilization Begins
Definitions: Knighthood • Knighthood was grounded in the feudal ideal of loyalty. A famous medieval profession • Composed of high born fighting men or soldiers during the middle ages • Usually the sons of the nobility and the landlords
The Road to Knighthood At age 20, reaches the final phase of his training, He has to be knighted, takes a bath of purification And is dressed in a special attire, prays in the chapel, Kneels before his lord who hits him with a sword on his shoulder KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE At age 14, he learns how to fight on horseback, Serves his knight for some years, accompanying Him in battle At age 7, he learns horsemanship, care of arms and armor and trains to be courteous and humble
A knight in shining armor! • Typical attire of a knight • St. Ignatius was once an aspiring knight before he was hit by a canon ball and founded the Jesuits
Pads worn under the armor to help ease the weight. They were called gambesons.