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Ancient Egypt

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  1. Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt

  2. Central Question… deities art Pharaoh laws afterlife Spirit Ba/ka How did religion influence the development & sustainability of ancient egypt? politics nature ethics

  3. What was the “SOUL” of Ancient Egypt?

  4. THE NILE was considered the SOUL as it was the source of life and path to immortality Egyptians lived on Eastern side but buried on Western side River was symbol of passage of one life to next (eternity) Yearly flooding – essential for agriculture Creation story began in swirling waters of the Nile when god Horus gave power to Pharaohs Nile was the “Soul” of Egypt • Click here for Creation Story

  5. Egyptian Deities • What did the (gods and goddesses) resemble? Why? • Why have so many gods and goddesses? • The deities married, had families and children- why?

  6. O-D-H Activity What do you observe? What do you deduce? What do you hypothesize?

  7. Egyptian God- THOTH • God of Wisdom, Time, Writing • Represented by a male body with the head of an Ibis. • Ibis=stork like bird with long legs and beak to catch fish in mud • Ibis, symbolized wisdom because beak shaped like a pen and dips in the mud as if it was ink

  8. O-D-H Activity What do you observe? What do you deduce? What do you hypothesize?

  9. Egyptian God- OSIRIS • God of Vegetation and Underworld • Represented by a male body with a greenish complexion and usually depicted wrapped in white linen • The greenish complexion draws the connection with vegetation • Wrapped in white linen like a mummy to connect with the underworld Notice: Osiris’ legs are bound together like a mummy different from most Gods

  10. Goddess: Ma’at • Ma’at- represented truth, righteousness and justice GUIDING QUESTIONS • How would the concept of ma’at create balance and order in Egypt? • How would ma’at affect everyone (from the Pharaoh to the people)? • What is the connection of ma’at to life and the afterlife?

  11. Egyptian Theocracy • A theocracy is a form of government in which the government (in ancient Egyptian case- the Pharaoh) claims to rule on behalf of a god or deities • Think aloud:-Why would a king promote the belief that he had the support of the gods?-How would theocracy create the idea of “divine kingship”?-How would the concept of ‘divine kingship’ affect the status of the pharaoh?

  12. How did Pharaoh's rule? • absolute rulers of the land • believed to be the earthly embodiment of the god Horus who was the son of Amon-Re. Therefore they had the divine right to rule • This allowed the Pharaoh to move between god and their people (hourglass analogy) • People followed their orders because they believed they were from god = cult like status in life and in death • No one would challenge the King’s authority and he could rule in relative peace

  13. Fun Fact…-The throne passed on to eldest son of Principal Queen who was usual the eldest daughter of the previous king therefore the king’s __________

  14. Dress of the Pharaoh What do you observe? What do you deduce? What do you hypothesize?

  15. Fit for a Pharaoh • Crook and Flail • Double Crown • Royal Cobra (Eye ofRa) • Headcloth • Shaved heads • Prominent Beard • Gold • Sceptres

  16. Education • All children, regardless of social class, received some education • Followed a moral and ethical guide “Instructions in Wisdom” • Goal for education was to ensure youth exhibited self control and good manners • Education respected for creating a well rounded individual

  17. Law • Law was governed by religious principle of Ma’at • Laws were applied equally to all classes specifically protected the family (children and wives) • Women shared the same legal rights as men (free slaves, make adoptions, divorce, own property) • Punishments for crimes could be quite severe- act as a deterrent or disgrace the guilty (Examples: minor crimes had 100 lashes; corrupt officials had their hands amputated; crimes that resulted in a death sentence could have choice= devoured by a crocodile, suicide, burning alive)

  18. What determined Egypt’s Wealth?

  19. Egyptian Wealth • Agriculturemade up most of Egypt’s wealth – grain, vegetables, fruit, cattle, goats, pigs and fowl • Abundance and management of food supplies (not royal treasury) was the measure of Egypt’s wealth = full granaries, plenty of wildlife and fish, and thriving herds were the signs of prosperity. These were the images used in the tombs of the Pharaohs to illustrate the wealth of their reign

  20. Economy and Trade • Simple economy based on food production and minerals from desert • access to the Mediterranean their routes extended trade as far as Northern Europe, subtropical Africa and the Near East • Trading was done by bartering goods (grain, oil, wheat) • Taxes, salaries and loans were all paid entirely on goods • extensive trading made Egypt a powerful influence on culture, art, ideas and technology (ie. Western calendar was taken from the Romans who had borrowed it from the Egyptians) • Trade eventually grew and expanded, bringing new ideas and goods into Egyptian society

  21. Social Roles Role of Women • Well treated and had considerable legal rightscompared to other civilizations • Left women to be economically independent • Primary role was in domestic life • Common title for a married women in ancient Egypt was “nebet per” meaning “the lady of the house” • Bear and raise children Role of Men • Head of the family • Men could have numerous wives but economically men had only 1 wife • Labourers, craftsmen • Jobs were hereditary Jobs • Labour required for construction projects and was mostly filled by poor, serfs • Stability of Egypt thrived as skilled trades were passed from father to son • Children always learned the trade from parents; seldom could choose occupation

  22. Rosetta Stone The Rosetta Stone is a stone with writing on it in two languages (Egyptian and Greek), using three scripts (hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek). It was carved in 196 BCE. Why is it in three different scripts? • The Rosetta Stone is written in three scripts (hieroglyphs for religious documents; demotic- common script of Egypt; Greek- language of the rulers of Egypt at that time) • The Rosetta Stone was written in all three scripts so that the priests, government officials and rulers of Egypt could read what it said. When was the Rosetta Stone found? • The Rosetta Stone was found in 1799 by French soldiers who were rebuilding a fort in Egypt (in a small village in Delta called Rosetta (Rashid) What does the Rosetta Stone say? • The Rosetta Stone is a text written by a group of priests in Egypt to honour the Egyptian pharaoh. It lists all of the things that the pharaoh had done that were good for the priests and the people of Egypt.

  23. Afterlife: How is death is a new beginning? mummification = significance and connection to nature Monuments = significance of stone Items in tomb = significance

  24. Egyptian Art: “Funerary Scene” • Ka (soul /spiritual duplicate) • ba (personality) • akh (form mummy took in afterlife) • ankh (the key of life) • Anubis, Ma’at, Ammit, Thoth, Horus, Osiris

  25. BIG IDEA… deities art religion influenced the development & sustainability of ancient Egypt through… Pharaoh laws economy afterlife politics nature Social roles ethics