Ancient Egypt Unit 3 – Ancient Egypt 6th Grade Social Studies
Ancient Egypt • Egypt • Egypt’s 1st civilization was established in 3150 B.C. under Egypt’s first pharaoh King Menes (MEE-nes). • King Menes united upper and lower Egypt. • Ancient Egypt consisted of 3 kingdoms: • Old Kingdom • Middle Kingdom • New Kingdom • Egypt was ruled by 31dynasties from 3150 B.C. – 332 B.C. • Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 B.C. • Roman Empire gained control of Egypt in 30 B.C.
The Geography of the Nile • Egypt • “Egypt is the gift of the Nile” said Greek Historian Herodotus • There would be no Egypt without the Nile • Located on the NE corner of the African continent. • Egypt was divided by two types of land: • “black land” – fertile land on the banks of the Nile River • “red land” – uninhabited desert that protected Egypt (Sahara) • Coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea & Red Sea. • Today Egypt is the size of Texas and New Mexico combined.
The Geography of the Nile • Nile River • The Nile River starts as two rivers, the White Nile and Blue Nile. • The two rivers connect in (present-day) Sudan to create the Nile River. • Nile runs north (N) to the Mediterranean Sea and is more than 4,100 miles long, the longest river in the world. • A 1,000 mile stretch of the Nile that creates the S-shape was the land called Nubia an ancient region in the Nile River Valley • The Nubian section of the Nile contained 6 rock-filled rapids called cataracts. • Lower Nubia was between the first and second cataracts. • Desert and granite like terrain people had to live close to the Nile to survive
The Geography of the Nile • Nile River • The end of the Nile splits into several streams that flow into the Mediterranean Sea. • Forms a area shaped like a triangle & called the Nile Delta (a plain at the mouth a river). • Most fertile farmland is in the delta. • Each spring the Nile River flooded and carried rich fertile soil called silt which was used for farming. • The river flooded the dry desert land and deposited a thick layer of silt which was ideal for farming. • In gratitude the Egyptians praised theGod of the Nile – Hapi (HAH pea) • Communities developed along the Nile by 4,000 B.C. • Scattered farming villages
The Geography of the Nile Nile River Nile was a highway for trade. • Nile flowed north & winds blew south. • Ships could travel North on the Nile because it was moving down river. • They could also sail upriver with the help of the winds • Nubians developed trade routes (a route used by traveling traders) on land due to the Nile cataracts. • People could not travel by river • Nubia became famous traders of the Ancient World
Upper & Lower Egypt Nile Delta Mediterranean Sea Lower Egypt Upper Egypt
Nile River Nile River Nile Delta
The Three Kingdoms Old Kingdom 2686-2181 BC Middle Kingdom 1991-1786BC Pharaohs kept peace and traded with Nubia Merchants traded with the eastern coast of the Mediterranean to find timber for building Towards the end, governors in the provinces began to challenge the pharaoh’s government and the dynasties grew weak. Early rulers restored order and reunited the country Pharaohs’ spent money on the nation instead of wars. They constructed buildings and irrigation projects making Egypt wealthier. Weaker rulers followed and lost control to foreign invaders
The Three Kingdoms New Kingdom 1567-1085BC • Egyptian princes became strong enough to drive out foreign invaders • The first pharaohs wanted to build an empire. • Created huge armies – chariots , bronze swords, body armour • King Tutankhamen became ruler while he was still a child. • Died at age 18 and was buried with many precious objects • His tomb was discovered in 1922
Egyptian Kings and Queens • Pharaoh’s • Video Clip • Absolute Power • The title used for the kings of Egypt. • Traditionally a position for ONLY men. • Egypt DID have women pharaoh’s. • Most Famous = Hatshepsut (haht SHEP soot) & Cleopatra • Egypt’s pharaoh’s controlled the wealth and power of the empire, and the fortunes of it rested in the strength of the pharaoh. • Egypt’s 1st pharaoh = King Menes Egypt’s last pharaoh = Queen Cleopatra • Estimated 332 Egyptian Pharaoh’s • Pharaoh’s had absolute ruling power (complete control) over their people. • Pharaoh’s were god-kings as many believed earthly forms of gods.
Egyptian Kings and Queens • Dynasty • Dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family. • Egypt had 31 dynasties. • The title of king was passed down to the first born son. • In 1504 BC, Thutmose III (thoot MOH suh) began his reign. Because he was too young to rule, his stepmother, Hatshepsut, was appointed his Regent (someone who rules for a child until the child is old enough). • Hatsheput proclaimed herself queen and ruled for 15 years. • Created a time of great peace and economic success. • Encouraged trade and is know for the famous expedition to the land of Punt.
Egyptian Kings and Queens Dynasty • When Thutmose III was old enough Hatshepsut refused to give up the throne. • After her death Thutmose III, became Pharaoh and was one of the greatest pharaohs of the New Kingdom.. • Egyptian Timeline = http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/egyptian.html • The final Egyptian dynasty lasted from 343 B.C. to 332 B.C. • Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 B.C. and Egyptian power fell to the Macedonians. • Macedon (Greeks) ruled Egypt until 30 B.C. when the Roman Empire took control of Egypt. • 641 A.D. Egypt is conquered by the Arabs and forced to convert to Islam.
Hatshepsut Stone Statue of Hatshepsut Granite Sphinx of Hatshepsut
Egyptian Religion • Polytheism • Daily Life • Afterlife • Like the Mesopotamians, the Egyptians believed in many gods. • Egyptians believed in more than 1,000 gods and goddesses. • Religion was very important part of Egyptian daily life. • Explained the workings of life and nature. • Sunrise to sunset = life was explained through the gods. • Egyptians lived by a code of standards in order to be judged accordingly after death. • Temples were built to honor the gods - food, gifts, prayers were offered to the gods. • Egyptians believed the spirits of the dead made their way to an afterlife, joined the god of the afterlife, Osiris, then rested and lived a life of ease and pleasure.
Egyptian Religion • Mummification • Video Clip • Pharaoh’s Tombs • The process of preserving a body or saving a body for the afterlife. • Internal organs were removed & filled with natural salt. • Body is stored for 40 days until completely dried out. • Body is cleaned, bathed with spices and wrapped in cloth. • The process was expensive and took 2-3 months. Creating a mummy(the preserverd body of a dead person.) • The tombs were the final resting place for the pharaoh’s physical body. • Pharaoh’s were buried with earthly possessions, such as: food, clothing, jewels, and even servants and pets. • For royalty, gold was used to demonstrate pharaoh's wealth & power.
Egyptian Religion • Pyramids • Video Clip • Video Clip • The pharaoh’s were then buried in the tombs within a pyramid. • Pyramids were built to protect the body of the deceased pharaoh’s. • Pyramids were huge structures with four sloping triangle shaped walls. • The pyramids are considered one of the greatest achievements of the Egyptians. • Pyramids could take 20 years to build. • Pyramids were constructed of blocks of limestone. • The pyramid construction was an act of faith ensuring the pharaoh’s place in the afterlife. • The Great Pyramid of Giza, the most famous pyramid stands 481ft. High, each side is 756ft. Long, and the structure covers 13 acres of land.
Egyptian Religion vs. Mesopotamian Religion Egyptian Religion Mesopotamian Religion
Egyptian Double Bubble Ziggurats Polytheism Meso Religion Egyptian Religion Temples
Pyramids Step Pyramid Brent Pyramid True Pyramid • Each layer is shorter in width and length than the one below, creating the appearance of steps as the pyramid rises in height. The purpose of these structures was for either a tomb or temple . • Used mainly during the 1st Dynasty • The pyramid is called "bent" because it changes angles at about 2/3 of the way to the top. • Located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur about 40 km south of Cairo • Built under the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Snefery • a stucture whose shape is roughly that of a pyramid in the geometric sense; that is, its outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top.
Pyramids The Great Sphinx in front of the Pyramid of Khafre. A Stepped Egyptian Pyramid
Pyramids Pyramid Entrance
Egyptian Government • Government • Theocracy • Ancient Egyptian government was dominated by a single individual, the king or pharaoh. • The people believed that the king was more than a man, they believed that he was a god or god-king. • This gave him absolute power over the affairs of the empire and its people. • Ancient Egypt was also a Theocracy, controlled by the clergy. • The pharaoh’s advisors were almost always priests, who were considered the only men worthy and able to carry out the god-king’s commands. • The governmental officials included the vizier, the chief treasurer, the tax collector, the minister of public works, and the army commander. • Taxes were paid in goods and labor. • Tax collectors were the most disliked government officials.
Theocracy vs. Democracy Theocracy Democracy
Egyptian Gods • Religion • Key Gods • Religion was an important part of daily life. • Gods were often shown as humans with animal heads. • Egyptian city-states worshiped different gods. All Egyptians worshiped key principal gods. • The chief god was Amon-Re – protector of all people rich and poor. • Re – god of the sun. • Osiris – god of the living, the dead, and the rebirth. • His wife Isis – protector of the children. • Their son Horus – god of the sky. Head like a hawk.
Egyptian Gods • Key Gods • Amun– King of the gods. • Shown as a man wearing an ostrich plumed hat or having the head of a ram. • Later Egyptians believed that Amun and Re combined to create the powerful god Amon-Re. • Bastet – Protector of the king while in battle. Woman with the head of a cat. • Thoth – god of wisdom and of writing. God with the head of an ibis or baboon. • Egyptians believe he gave the gift of hieroglyphics. • Also believed to have a connection to the moon.
Egyptian Life & Culture • Social Structure • How Do We Know? • The pharaoh’s and royal family were at the top of the Egyptian society. • Egyptian Gods & Goddesses • Pharaoh • Vizier • Upper class (priests & nobles) • Middle class (merchants, craft workers, scribes, and tax collectors) • Peasant Farmers (largest population in society) • Slaves (Prisoners captured in wars were made slaves) • Painting on the walls of temples and tombs. • Hieroglyphics
Egyptian Life & Culture • Hieroglyphics • Writing Materials • Egyptian form of writing that consists of hieroglyphs; a writing that uses picture-like symbols instead of words. • Hieroglyphs = the picture like symbols in hieroglyphics. • Pictures stand for ideas, things, and sounds. • Egyptians needed to keep record of the kingdom’s wealth. • Egyptians would study writing in the Temples with the priest. • 1st Egyptians wrote on clay and stone. • Papyrus is a reed (plant) found in the marshy areas of the Nile River. • Egyptians used papyrus to make paper, also called papyrus.
Egyptian Life & Culture • Rosetta Stone • Web Link • Why Did People Settle in Egypt? • A stone was discovered in 1799 near Rosetta, a city in the Nile Delta. • The stone was carved in 196 B.C. • The stone had 3 different types of writing on it; • Hieroglyphics (upper part of the stone) • Demonic – type of Egyptian writing (middle of the stone) • Greek (bottom of the stone) • Deciphered in 1822 by Jean-François Champollion. • Approx. 4500 B.C. people began to settle along the Nile River: • Nile River (food, water, silt, transportation) & fertile soil • Isolated area = protection from invasions
Egyptian Life & Culture Inventions Concepts Hieroglyphics Geometry (used for measurement) Calendar of 12 months, each with 30 days. • Papyrus – a paper like material • Pyramids • Mummification • Medical Advances: surgery and use of splints for broken bones. • Metal Works: copper, bronze, & gold