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Introduction to World Religions – People of the Book PowerPoint Presentation
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Introduction to World Religions – People of the Book

Introduction to World Religions – People of the Book

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Introduction to World Religions – People of the Book

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  1. Introduction to World Religions – People of the Book

  2. What will you need to do? • Describe the key belief of the believers in ‘One God’ • You’ll need to do this for TWO religions.   • Give reasons for why people hold this belief? • Where does it come from? (Sacred Texts, Tradition, etc.) • What is the significance of these sources to the believer.   • Describe how people ‘live out’ this key belief in ‘One God’? • What do people actually ‘do’ because they believe in One God? and, • Why do they do it? • Prayer and Worship • Teaching and ‘mission’ • Everyday life

  3. Prayer – Psalm 27 The Lord is my light and my salvation - whom shall I fear? The Lord is the stronghold of my life - of whom shall I be afraid? When the wicked advance against me to devourme, it is my enemies and my foes who will stumble and fall. Though an army besiege me, my heart will not fear; though war break out against me, even then I will be confident. One thing I ask from the LORD, this only do I seek: that I may dwell in the house of the LORD all the days of my life, to gaze on the beauty of the LORD and to seek him in his temple. For in the day of trouble he will keep me safe in his dwelling; he will hide me in the shelter of his sacred tent and set me high upon a rock. Then my head will be exalted above the enemies who surround me; at his sacred tent I will sacrifice with shouts of joy; I will sing and make music to the Lord.

  4. Judaism

  5. Belief in one God Judaism is a monotheistic religion, which teaches the belief in one God. Most other religions at the time were polytheistic. The Hebrews believed that God was their special protector and was present everywhere One God VS Many gods

  6. God made a covenant with Abraham

  7. People who practiced Judaism were called Hebrews They were originally nomadic peoples They kept oral records of their religion and laws. These records were later formed into the first part of the Bible – the Hebrew Scriptures (OT) The founder of the Hebrews was Abraham. His grandson Jacob had twelve sons, and they called themselves the Twelve Tribes of Israel.

  8. Origin of Judaism Around the 1200s BCE a leader named Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt They led a nomadic life and eventually were brought to a place they called the “promised land.” Jerusalem

  9. Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt, around the 1200s BCE a leader named Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt • Set up a kingdom in Israel with Jerusalem as its capital • Hebrew beliefs grew into the religion of Judaism

  10. Judaism influenced two other monotheistic early religions Islam Christianity They were known as “People of the Book”

  11. Conflicts between Pharisees & Saducees • Class: between the wealthy and the poor, as the Sadducees • included mainly the priestly and aristocratic families. • 2. Cultural: between those who favoured Hellenization and those who resisted it. • 3. Between those who emphasized the importance of the Second Temple, and those who emphasized the importance of other Mosaic laws and prophetic values. • 4. Different interpretations of the Torah and how to apply it to current Jewish life, with the Sadducees recognizing only the written Torah and rejecting doctrines such as the Oral Torah and the Resurrection of the Dead.

  12. Judaism – Key Beliefs • A personal, single, God (there are no other Gods) • People were made in the image of God • Sin leads to spiritual death • Torah: the Book of the Law is the remedy, keeps you connected to God and clear from sin • Waiting for the Messiah, the Anointed One

  13. Judaism Sacred Texts Torah • The first five books of the Tanakh. These books are also known as the Five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch Tanakh • Consists of the same books as the Christian Old Testament, although in a slightly different order and with other minor differences

  14. Judaism Sources Talmud • A central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history. Midrash • A large body of rabbinical material derived from sermons. (written mostly between 500 – 700AD)

  15. Putting on Phylacteries for Prayer Wrapping phylacteries around his arm, a Hasidic boy in Brooklyn, New York, prepares for his morning prayers. Phylacteries, called tefillin in Hebrew, consist of two black leather boxes that are attached to leather ties; the boxes contain passages from Scripture written on parchment. Traditional Jews, including Hasidim, wear phylacteries for prayer from the time of bar mitzvah (age 13) on.

  16. Bar Mitzvah Ceremony The bar mitzvah, an important ritual in Judaism, initiates a boy into the adult religious community at the age of 13. The central feature of the ceremony is a reading from the Torah by the boy, who is accompanied here by the rabbi and his father. As an adult male, the bar mitzvah boy wears a prayer shawl and, out of respect for God, covers his head with a yarmulke, or skullcap. A similar ceremony, called a bat mitzvah, marks a Jewish girl’s entrance into the adult community.

  17. The Sabbath (Friday Sunset to Saturday Sunset) Shabbat – The Sabbath (or Shabbat, as it is called in Hebrew) is one of the best known and least understood of all Jewish observances. It is primarily a day of rest and spiritual enrichment. Shabbat is the most important ritual observance in Judaism. It is the only ritual observance instituted in the Ten Commandments. It is also the most important special day, even more important than Yom Kippur. The word "Shabbat" means to cease, to end, or to rest. People who do not observe Shabbat think of it as a day filled with stifling restrictions, or simply as a day of prayer; yet, to those who observe Shabbat, it is a precious gift from God, a day of great joy eagerly awaited throughout the week, a time when we can set aside all of our weekday concerns and devote ourselves to spiritual pursuits.

  18. The Sabbath (Friday Sunset to Saturday Sunset) • About 2-3pm observant Jews begin preparations: • Clean house, dress up, best dishes, table set, meal prepared, etc. • Shabbat 2 candles are lit and a blessing said no later than 18 minutes before sunset – usually performed by the woman of the house. • The family then attends a brief evening service (45min) Afterwards, family comes home for a festive, leisurely dinner. The man says a prayer over the wine & bread at the beginning. Grace is said after meals Next morning services begin around 9am till noon. Ends at nightfall with blessings over wine, spices & candles

  19. The Sabbath (Friday Sunset to Saturday Sunset) The following are forbidden on the Sabbath: Sowing, plowing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, selecting, grinding, sifting, kneading, baking, shearing wool, washing wool, beating wool, dyeing wool, spinning, weaving, making two loops, weaving two threads, separating two threads, tying, untying, sewing two stitches, tearing, trapping, slaughtering, flaying, salting meat, curing hide, scraping hide, cutting hide up, writing two letters, erasing two letters, building, tearing a building down, extinguishing a fire, kindling a fire, hitting with a hammer, taking an object from the private domain to the public, or transporting an object in the public domain. Also prohibited are travel, the use of electricity, buying and selling of goods or services, and other weekday tasks that would interfere with the spirit of Shabbat.

  20. Purim Holiday remembering overcoming of Haman’s plot to kill Jews, through the effort of Mordecai & Esther. Written in the book of Esther Lunar Calendar The Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar, or fixed lunar year, based on twelve lunar months of twenty-nine or thirty days, with a lunar month added seven times every nineteen years (once every two to three years) to synchronize the twelve lunar cycles with the slightly longer solar year. Each Jewish lunar month starts with the new moon. Shavu’ot (Pentecost) A harvest festival remembering the time when the first fruits were brought to the Temple. 49 Days, 7 full weeks, after the 2nd day of Passover. Rosh Hashanah (Trumpets) Jewish New Year. A high holy day during which the shofar is sounded, and symbolic foods eaten (such as apples dipped in honey). Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) Holiest day of the year. Theme of atonement and repentance – fasting and intensive prayer.

  21. Hanukkah • One of the lower holidays, but most well known amongst non-Jews. • In 167BCE Antiochus IV ordered an altar to Zeus erected in the Temple and pigs sacrificed at the altar. • By 165 a revolt was successful and the Temple was liberated & a new altar built. • But sacred oil was need to burn in the Temple Menorah for 8 days & nights but there was only enough oil for 1 day. • That oil burned for 8 as a sign of God’s power.

  22. What is a Synagogue • Synagogues originally began as an assembly place, a sort of community centre for Jews to gather. For over 2000 years it has provided a place of warmth and security for Jewish noursihment and education. The word "synagogue" comes from a greek word meaning "meeting place". Today the word Shul is commonly used. The synagogue is a place of prayer, worship , a school for studying Jewish teachings, and a meeting place.

  23. What is a Synagogue • When they pray Jews face towards Jerusalem. In the wall which faces towards Jerusalem there is the Ark of the Covenant, the Aron Kodesh, which contains the Torah, and the 10 Commandments. • Originally the Ark was a wooden chest which the Jews used to carry the teachings Moses received from God on Sinai. • In front of the Ark is a curtain, the Parochet, usually beautifully embroidered. One or two menorah, seven branched candle sticks, are found close to the Ark.

  24. The Daily Life of a Jew Mitzvot: God’s 613 “do’s and don’ts” regarding the daily life of a Jew – none of the Mitzvot deal with beliefs, each of them deal specifically with a particular action. There are 365 negative commandments, corresponding to the number of days in a solar year, and 248 positive commandments, ascribed to the number of bones and significant organs in the human body 613

  25. Some examples from the Torah Genesis : Gn 9.4 “Only you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, it’s blood in it” Genesis 17:11 “Every male among you shall be circumcised.” Exodus: Ex:20 – The 10 commandments Leviticus: Lev 11 – Food laws Numbers: 18:32 – Ritual offerings Deuteronomy: 14:21 – more food laws

  26. Food (primarily Leviticus 11) Kosher – In determining whether a recipe you want to post is kosher, bear in mind the basic concepts of kosher food: no mixing of dairy and meat; no pork or pork products; no shell fish. This also applies to food products containing such ingredients. For example, a food coloring made from a shell fish would be considered unkosher and would taint the food in which it might be used. Similarly, using, e.g., an animal fat together with dairy ingredients renders the product unkosher and taints even the implements used in making it. If a recipe is not in keeping with these basic requirements, consider whether substitutions can be made to adjust it (e.g., substituting margarine for butter in a meat recipe). If you are unsure of how to make such substitutions, post the recipe and ask for suggestions as how to do so. Taken from a Jewish Cooking website X X X

  27. The Daily Life of a Jew “Some look at the teachings of the Mizvot and deduce that Jews are trying to earn their way into Heaven by observing rules. This is a gross mischaracterization of the Jewish religion. It is important to remember that unlike other religions, Judaism isn’t focused on the question of how to get into Heaven. Judaism rather, is focused on our life on earth and how to best live that life. Non-Jews frequently ask me, ‘do you think that you will go to Hell if you don’t do such-and-such?’ – to which I always respond that the question of where I’m going after death simply doesn’t enter into the equation when I think about observing the Mizvot. We perform the Mizvot because it is our privilege and our sacred obligation to do so…we perform them out of a sense of love and duty to our Creator, not out of a desire to get something in return.” Rabbi Izakson

  28. You have searched me, LORD, and you know me. You know when I sit and when I rise; you perceive my thoughts from afar. You discern my going out and my lying down; You are familiar with all my ways. Before a word is on my tongue you, LORD, know it completely. You hem me in behind and before, and you lay your hand upon me. Such knowledge is too wonderful for me, too lofty for me to attain. Where can I go from your Spirit? Where can I flee from your presence? If I go up to the heavens, you are there; If I make my bed in the depths, you are there. If I rise on the wings of the dawn, if I settle on the far side of the sea, Even there your hand will guide me, your right hand will hold me fast.

  29. What will you need to do? • Describe the key belief of the believers in ‘One God’ • You’ll need to do this for TWO religions.   • Give reasons for why people hold this belief? • Where does it come from? (Sacred Texts, Tradition, etc.) • What is the significance of these sources to the believer.   • Describe how people ‘live out’ this key belief in ‘One God’? • What do people actually ‘do’ because they believe in One God? and, • Why do they do it? • Prayer and Worship • Teaching and ‘mission’ • Everyday life

  30. What will you need to do?

  31. Introduction to Christianity

  32. The Key beliefs of Catholic Christians • We believe in one God (Triune: Father, Son and Spirit) • All human beings are made in the image of God • God loves us and freely gave Jesus, God’s Son, to save us (Jesus freely chose to give his life for us) • We believe in the Resurrection • (We will be raised just as Jesus was raised from the dead.) • God speaks to us through Holy Scripture, Tradition and Prayer • We encounter God especially through the 7 Sacraments (external signs of God’s inward Grace) • God calls us to action

  33. Christianity • Triune, personal God: God the Creator, Jesus, Holy Spirit • God created the universe, and people in his image • People sin against God, leading to spiritual death

  34. Christianity • Atonement for sin is made by God in Jesus. People respond by accepting grace through faith. • Linear history: began with creation and will end with ultimate redemption (We will be saved and be with God in Heaven)

  35. What We Believe The Nicene Creed (New Translation used at Mass)

  36. The Nicene Creed • I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible.

  37. St John’s Gospel Model In the beginning was the Word, the Word was with God and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through Him all things came to be. Creator, Word,Spirit LOVE Word Spirit

  38. I believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, • The only begotten Son of God, • Born of the Father before all ages, • God from God, • Light from Light, • true God from true God,

  39. begotten, not made, • Consubstantial with the Father. • And by the Holy Spirit was incarnate from the Virgin Mary, and became a man.

  40. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; • he suffered, died, and was buried. • And rose again on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures; • He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.

  41. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, • and His kingdom will have no end.

  42. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, • who proceeds from the Father and the Son. • With the Father and the Son he is adored and glorified. • Who has spoken through the Prophets.

  43. I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. • I confess one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. • And I look forward to the resurrection of the dead, • and the life of the world to come. • Amen.

  44. Sources of Teachings • The Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) • The 10 Commandments (Exodus) • Wise sayings (Proverbs) • All the revelation of God to God’s people • The Christian Scriptures (New Testament) • Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke & John) • Jesus sayings (eg. Do to others, what you’d like them to do to you; love your neighbour; forgive; 1st Mass; etc) • The Acts of Apostles & Letters • Origins of the early church

  45. Sources of Teachings • The Tradition of the Church • The Mass • Liturgy of the Word (readings, sermon, prayers) • Liturgy of the Eucharist (communion prayer, sign of peace, receiving communion) • Being sent out • Sacraments • Baptism, Reconciliation, 1st Communion, Confirmation, Marriage, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders • Church Teaching • Moral teaching – Sexuality; Ethics; Social Justice; etc • Interpretation of Scripture

  46. What do Christians do in response to this One God? • Love one another • Go to Church – Mass • Care for the poor and less fortunate • Pray (sign of the Cross, Rosary) • Read the Bible, Listen to God’s word • Forgive/Reconcile • Live as Jesus would (WWJD?) • Follow the Church’s year (Advent, Christmas, Ordinary time, Lent, Easter, Feast days, etc)

  47. What do Christians do in response to this One God? • Tradition of the Church: • Moral Teaching (right and wrong) • Catholic Social Teaching (social justice) • Church Hierarchy (Pope, Bishops, Religious, Laity) • Council Documents (Vatican II, etc) • Lives of the Saints • Receive Sacraments • Baptism, Reconciliation, Communion, Confirmation, Marriage, Holy Orders, Anointing of the Sick

  48. Prayer • Catholics usually begin prayer with the ‘Sign of the Cross’ • In the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. • Prayer is always directed to God • Sometimes through the Saints • Prayers may include: • Petitions – asking for things or strength • Thanks giving • Praise - Acknowledging God’s greatness • Personal conversation with God • Traditional prayers: Our Father, Hail Mary, Glory Be…