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Leviticus PowerPoint Presentation

Leviticus

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Leviticus

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  1. Sinai Leviticus People Set Apart for God Sacrifices Atonement

  2. Introduction to the Book of Leviticus • Theme of the Book of Leviticus • Holiness of Israel as people set apart to serve God • The word “holy” occurs 131 times • The word “clean” occurs 186 times • Writer • Moses • Place of Writing • Probably written while at Mt. Sinai and in the wilderness wandering • Divine authorship • 38 times it states God spoke the words …

  3. Introduction to the Book of Leviticus • Content of the Book of Leviticus • Full of sacrificial rituals which have not been practiced for almost 2000 years • Christians see the replacement of the physical system with a spiritual one (Jer. 31:31) • Many laws covered • Civil – Social system organization • Ceremonial - Feasts • Moral - Values • Religious – Worship and Sacrifice • Sanitary – Food laws and cleanliness

  4. Introduction to the Book of Leviticus • Beginning and end points of Leviticus • Tent of meeting at Sinai (1:1) • Mount Sinai (27:34)

  5. Introduction to the Book of Leviticus • Outline of Leviticus • The way to approach God (1:1-16:34) • The way to maintain fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • God’s response to obedience and disobedience (26:1-46) • Vows and tithing (27:1-34)

  6. Introduction to the Book of Leviticus • Four basic principles seen in Leviticus • Israel is God’s unique people set apart for service and worship of the one true God • Access to God is through the substitutionary atoning sacrifice of innocent (pure) for the guilty • Israel to abstain from sin • Only pure things acceptable offerings to God

  7. Introduction to the Book of Leviticus • Historical consideration • Early biblical critics of the Bible maintained that laws like in Leviticus were not in evidence at this time period in history • Hammurabi’s Code and Sumerian laws dating to the same time period as the laws of Leviticus and even older

  8. Introduction to the Book of Leviticus • Chronological connections to Exodus and Numbers • Leviticus records the laws and regulations given to Moses on Mt. Sinai during the time period recorded in the Book of Exodus • Sacrificial system carried out by priests given in detail • Rules regarding the Tabernacle • Tabernacle completed on the 1st day, 1st month of 2nd year (Ex. 40:17) • First event in Numbers is the census on 1st day, 2nd month of 2nd year • Leave Sinai 20th day, 2nd month of 2nd year

  9. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Distinction between the offerings • Group 1 – Fellowship Group, celebrating relationship with God • Burnt offering – recognition of sinfulness • Meal offering – thankfulness to God • Peace offering – fellowship and communion with God • Group 2 – Cleansing Group, removal of sins • Sin offering • Trespass/Guilt offering • Ways group one differs from group two • Group one is described as “pleasing odor to Yahweh” • Group one - no specific sin prompts these sacrifices • Group one is Voluntary • Group one - fellowship and relationship celebrated

  10. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Group 1 Fellowship - Burnt offering (1:1-17) • Purpose: to propitiate for sin in general • Recognition of being a sinful person • Propitiate – carries the idea of take the place of, make reconciliation (show mercy) by providing a vicarious (substitution) sacrifice • The Sacrifice – according to wealth (ox, sheep, goat, dove) • God’s portion – all the animal • Priest’s portion - none • Person’s portion - none

  11. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Group 1 Fellowship - Burnt offering (1:1-17) • Occasion for burnt offerings – atonement (1:4) • Daily sacrifice (morning and evening) • Sabbath • Festivals (New Moon, Day of Atonement, Passover, etc • Private burnt offerings prescribed by law • Consecration of Priests • Purification of women • Removal of leprosy • Removal of uncleanliness • Breach of vow • Freewill burnt offering • Acknowledge God’s mercy and give thanks

  12. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Group 1 Fellowship - Meal offering (2:1-16) • Purpose – gift and thanks for God’s blessings • The Sacrifice – grains, e.g. flours, oils cooked or not & frankincense (varied according to wealth) • God’s portion – part to God • Priest’s portion – rest to be eaten by priests • Person’s portion – none • Occasion – anytime, first-fruits • “Salt of the covenant” added as a sign of incorruptness of covenant

  13. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Group 1 Fellowship - Peace offering (3:1-17) • Purpose – Fellowship/communion meal to remember one’s relationship with God • Sacrifice – Unblemished male or female ox, sheep, goat • God’s portion – Fat and blood • Priest’s portion: • Wave offering – breast portion goes to high priest • Heave offering – thigh goes to officiating priest • (Indicated by the motion of the priest) • Person’s portion – remainder eaten in court yard on the same day

  14. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Group 1 Fellowship - Peace offering (3:1-17) • Various occasions for peace offerings: • Thanks offering (7:12) • Purpose – for unexpected blessings or deliverance • Votive offering (7:16) • Purpose – for the fulfillment of vows • Could be eaten on the first and second day • Freewill offering (7:16) • Purpose – to express general thankfulness and love toward God without regard to a specific blessing • Could be eaten on the first and second day

  15. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Group 2 Cleansing - Sin offering (4:1-5:13) • Purpose – To atone for specific unintentional sins where no restitution was possible; also for purification from uncleanleness • Sacrifice: • Priest or whole congregation = bull • Ruler = He goat • Commoner = She goat or lamb • Poor = dove or pigeon or fine flour • God’s portion – fatty portion • Priest’s portion – all the rest of animal • Skin and head burned outside of camp • Blood put on horns of alter of burnt offerings • Person’s portion – none

  16. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Group 2 Cleansing - Sin offering (4:1-5:13) • God’s portion – fatty portion • Priest’s portion – all the rest of animal • Skin and head burned outside of camp • Blood put on horns of alter of burnt offerings • Person’s portion – none • Occasion – Atonement for sins (4:31, 35) and forgiveness (5:14-16:7)

  17. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Group 2 Cleansing – Trespass/Guilt (5:14-6:7) • Purpose – To atone for specific unintentional & intentional sins where restitution was possible • Damages computed by priests and fifth or 20% add to replacement cost • Sacrifice – Ram only • God’s portion – fatty portion • Priest’s portion – all the rest of animal • Person’s portion – none • Occasion – Atonement for sins • (4:31, 35) and forgiveness (5:14-16:7)

  18. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7) • Group 2 Cleansing – Trespass/Guilt (5:14-6:7) • Differences between sin offering and trespass • Applied to individuals only • Only a Ram could be sacrificed • Pertained to intentional sin as well as unintentional • Intentionality • Sin against a person in 6:1-7 seems intentional sin • Numbers 5:6-8 notes that confession was necessary for deliberate sin and restitution was necessary after conviction (5:7)

  19. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Instruction for priests (6:8-7:36) • Burnt offerings (6:8-13) • Alter of burnt offerings to be kept burning • Ministerial garb when performing sacrifices • Remove ashes to the ash heap outside of camp, not in ministerial clothes • Meal offerings (6:14-18) • Daily required offering to support the priests • Grain offerings (6:19-23) • At priestly consecrations • Sin offerings (6:24-30) • Trespass offerings (7:1-10)

  20. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Instruction for priests (6:8-7:36) • Peace offerings (7:11-36) • Forbidden portion of a sacrifice (7:11-27) • Cannot eat the fat • Cannot eat the blood • Belong to God • Portions for the priests (7:28-36) • Wave offerings • Heave offerings

  21. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20) • Moses returns from receiving instructions on Mt. Sinai to implement them • Consecration of priests, Aaron and sons (set-aside for a holy purpose • Ceremonial washing (8:6) • Priest clothing (8:6-9) • Urim and Thummin – literally “lights,” “perfection” – used to cast lots for God will (Ex. 28:30; Num. 27:21; 1 Sam. 28:6; Ez. 2:63; Neh. 7:26) • Anoints tabernacle & Aarons head with oil (8:10-13)

  22. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20) • Moses consecrates Aaron with offerings • Bull for sin offering (8:14-17) • Priests placed their hands on head of sacrifice • Fat burned on alter • Remainder burned outside of camp (i.e. sin offering) • Ram for burnt offering (8:18-21) • Hands on head symbolizes their complete dedication to God • Ram of ordination (8:22-29) • Blood put on right ear, thumb, and big toe

  23. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20) • Moses consecrates Aaron with offerings • Blood of consecration and oil (8:30) • Eat of the offering for seven days (8:31-36) • Atonement (8:34)

  24. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20) • Aaron offers sacrifices for high priests – commencement of priestly ministry (9:1-24) • God’s instruction on offerings before His glory (9:1-14) • Sin offering for Aaron and the people • Burnt offering for Aaron and the people • Peace and grain offering • Aaron carries out sacrifices for himself (9:8-14) • Sacrifice for the people (9:15-22) • Glory of God appears to people (9:23-24) • Fire comes down from heaven – consumes sacrifice

  25. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20) • Proper method of sacrifice by priests (10:1-20) • Nadab and Abihu used strange fire (10:1-7) • Used fire different from what God commanded • May have been drunk • Showed disrespect for God’s will • Instruction to Aaron on the use of strong drink (10:8-9) • Distinction between holy & profane (10:10-11) • Proper use of sacrifices (10:12-20) • Wives of priests could join in eating wave & heave offerings

  26. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33) • Clean and unclean animals (11:1-47) • Land animals (11:1-8) • Split hoof and chews cud is clean others unclean • Water animals (11:9-12) • Scales and fins only clean • Birds (11:13-19) • List of unclean birds – scavengers unclean • Winged insects (11:20-23) • Four-footed unclean, clean – jointed legs & hops • Touching the dead (11:24-40) • Unclean until evening, wash self and clothes • Swarming things (11:41-47)

  27. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33) • Clean and unclean animals (11:1-47) • Touching the dead (11:24-40) • Unclean until evening, wash self and clothes • Swarming things (11:41-47) • All unclean • Crawls on belly unclean • Many legs unclean

  28. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33) • Purification of mother at childbirth (12:1-8) • Male child: Unclean for 7 days and purifies for 33 days • Female child: Unclean for 14 days and purifies for 66 days • Why the difference of time of unclean • Some say it shows gender preference given to males • It is probably God providing a longer rest period for women who have female children because of the cultural tendency to prefer male children and so the mother might receive preferential care for having a male • Unclean – do not do your normal work

  29. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33) • Purification and care of leprosy (13:1-14:57) • Detailed description on diagnosing leprosy and care • Examined by the priests • If found to have leprosy considered unclean (unhealthy) • If not below skin level and hair has not turned white one is put in isolation for seven days, if no change the person stays another seven days • If symptoms spread considered unclean and live separate from rest of people • Kept people at a distance by calling out unclean

  30. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33) • Purification for bodily secretions (15:1-33) • Normal bodily secretions • Unclean until evening • Washing only required • Abnormal bodily secretions • Unclean for seven days • Sacrifice required • Related to males (15:1-18) • Seven days unclean • Sacrifice: sin offering and burnt offering • Related to females (15:19-34) • Seven days unclean • Sacrifice: sin offering and burnt offering

  31. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34) • Priest and family sacrifice (16:1-14) • Priests - bull for sin offering, ram – burnt offering • Before can enter the holy of holies • Two goats – cast lots, one for sin offering & scapegoat • Goat offered • Shows imperfection of priesthood (Heb. 7:26-28) • Wash and clean clothes to enter holy of holies • Blood sprinkled on the mercy seat • Blood sprinkled on the horns of the alter

  32. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34) • People’s sacrifice (16:15-19) • Ram for a burnt offering • Two goats – cast lots, one for sin offering & scapegoat • Cast lots for goat to let loose in the wilderness • One sacrificed to God and one for “removal” • Blood sprinkled on the mercy seat • Blood sprinkled on the horns of the alter • “Then Aaron shall lay both of his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over it all the iniquities of the sons of Israel and all their transgressions in regard to all their sins; and he shall lay them on the head of the goat and send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a man who stands in readiness.

  33. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34) • People’s sacrifice (16:20-28) • Bear the sins of the people of Israel • Non-sacrificed goat - represents release from sins • Scapegoat – confesses over it all of the Israelite’s sin • Aaron lays hands on head of goat and confesses sins of Israel, sends the goat away into the wilderness • Goat shall bear their sins (16:22) • Priests to wash and put his priestly robes on again • Offers up the rams as burnt offerings with the fat of the sin offering • Flesh of the sin offering is offered outside of camp

  34. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34) • Perpetual statute (16:29-34) • Three things to remember about Day Atonement • Date of the Day of Atonement – 7 month, day 10 • Purpose – remove sins (16:30) • Day of Atonement – to be like Sabbath day, set aside for God

  35. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34) • Key terms related to sacrifice • Atonement – reconciliation to God by a substitutionary sacrifice with shedding of blood (Lev. 16:11, 16) • Reconciliation – be brought back into a right relationship • Propitiation - A sacrifice-like action that removes a barrier of sin which blocks a good relationship between God and people . (Rom. 3:25; Heb. 2:17; 1 Jn. 2:2, 4:10) • Consecration - devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or service of God. (Lev. 21:12; 2 Chron. 29:17)

  36. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34) • New Testament and the perfect sacrifice (Heb. 8:1-10:31) • New Covenant is better (Heb. 8:6-7) • New Covenant make the old obsolete (8:13) • The veil over the holy of holies indicates by the Holy Spirit that the way to the presence of God has not been totally revealed while the tabernacle was is standing (Heb. 9:8) • Old way could not make the worshiper perfect in conscience(9:9).

  37. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34) • New Testament and the perfect sacrifice (Heb. 8:1-10:31) • Jesus entered the most holy place through his blood (9:12) • Jesus blood cleanses our conscience through the eternal Spirit (Heb. 9:14) • Jesus the mediator of a new covenant • Death takes place for redemption of transgressions (Heb. 9:15) • Without blood there is no forgiveness • Holy place is a copy of the heavenly (9:23-24) • Jesus did not have to die yearly (9:25-28)

  38. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34) • New Testament and the perfect sacrifice (Heb. 8:1-10:31) • The law was a shadow of things to come and could not make the people perfect or complete (Heb. 10:1) • Sacrifices were reminders (10:3) • Jesus took the place or fulfilled the old system (10:4-18) • See Heb. 10:9 and Heb. 10:12 • Christians have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus (Heb. 10:19) • Hold fast to our confession (Heb. 10:23)

  39. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Sacrifice rules for killing animals (17:1-9) • Killed as a peace offering (5) • Not offered to the goat idol (7) • Purpose: to keep from improper worship (7) • Permanent statue (7) • Those who disobey will be cut off from the people (9)

  40. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Sacrifice and sanctity of blood (17:10-16) • Life is in the blood (see also Gen 9:4) • Not to eat • Blood to be used as atonement

  41. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27) • Not to live as the Egyptians or Canaanites (18:1-5) • God is the source of how people should live • They are to follow God (18:3) • Reason: He is God

  42. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27) • Law on sexual relations (18:6-30) • Laws on incest (18:6-18) • Other sexual sins (19:19-23) • Not to lie with a woman during unclean time • Adultery • Fornication • Worship of Molech • Homosexuality (18:22; 2013; Rom. 1:27; 1 Cor. 6:9; 1 Tim. 1:10) • Bestiality

  43. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27) • Results of continuing to sin (18:24-30) • Become defiled like the land God is giving them and so they will be corrected like he correct the people in the land before • They will be cutoff from among the people

  44. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27) • Relationship laws (19:1-37) • Love your parents (1-3) • No images of God • Proper sacrifice to God (worship) • Leaving some of the harvest for the poor • No stealing or dealing falsely • Not to oppress your neighbor (13-14) • Impartial judging (15) • No slandering (16)

  45. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27) • Relationship laws (19:1-37) • Love your neighbor as yourself, no vengeance (17-18) • Mixed breeding of cattle and mixed planted seeds (19) • Sexual relations with neighbor’s slaves (20-22) • Fruit of trees • No divination • Not to use mediums or spiritists • Kind to strangers • Hones in weights and measures

  46. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27) • Punishment for sin (20:1-27) • Applied to Israelites and aliens living in Israel • Death penalty for some crimes • Giving your child to Molech = religious adultery (1-5) • Using mediums and spiritists – cut off from the people (6-8,27) • Cursing father and mother – put to death (9) • Adultery – put to death (10-12) • Homosexuality – put to death (13-14) • Marries mother and daughter (15) • Bestiality – death (16) • Relations with uncles & aunts – cut off from the people (17-21)

  47. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27) • Punishment for sin (20:1-27) • God emphasizes the need to keep his statutes and not follow the customs of the nation they are to drive out of the land (22-23) • The statutes are to help the Israelites to live lives that are pleasing to God (holy living – living with God as one’s ruler) but also preserve good social relationships • Eating clean animals was to remind the Israelites they were to live holy (clean) lives – set apart for God’s purpose (24-26)

  48. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Laws governing the priests (21:1-22:33) • Priests keeping themselves holy (21:1-9) • Ceremonial purity (21:1-6) • Marital purity (21:7-9) • High priests keeping themselves holy (21:10-15) • Keeping the sacrifices pure (21:16-22:33) • Various laws related to proper sacrifice (21:16-22:16) • Flawless animals for sacrifice (22:17-33)

  49. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Holy days and festivals to be observed (23:1-44) • Weekly observance (23:1-3) • Sabbath (23:1-3) • Purpose: Day of rest from regular work day • Every seventh day

  50. Leviticus - Ways to Approach God • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55) • Holy days and festivals to be observed (23:1-44) • Annual celebrations or festivals (23:4-44) • Passover & Feast of Unleavened Bread (23:4-14) • Passover – 1st month, 14th day , begins celebration • Purpose – commemorate God’s deliverance of Israel from Egyptian slavery • Ritual – lamb killed, blood sprinkled on door posts, roasted and eaten by offerers • New Testament – pointed to a greater sacrifice and salvation through Christ’s crucifixion • Feast of Unleavened Bread – 1st month, 15th day for 7 days • Purpose – to commemorate the hardship of the hurried departure from Egypt • Ritual – offering of the first fruits, eating only unleavened bread