Before Agriculture • People Before Agriculture are: • 1. Nomads: Highly mobile people who moved from food source to food source. • 2. Hunter-Gatherers: People who live off the land hunting animals and foraging food.
Cave Paintings became the first forms of artistic expression by humans. They were created as nomads moved around and used various caves for shelter.
The Neolithic Revolution • The agricultural revolution that brought wide spread changes to human life as a result of farming. Food Gathering Food Producing
Slash and Burn Farming • Early popular farming technique that involved cutting and burning a field so that the ashes would fertilize the land. • Farmers would use this land for a couple years then move on.
Domestication • The taming of animals such as goats, horses, dogs, and pigs. • Nomads would build pastures and only move when taking their herds to graze • Villages grow and prosper
CatalHuyuk: One of the first Settlements • Discovered in modern day Turkey • Believed to be 8,000 years old • Earliest known example of permanent settlement in Mesopotamia • Early example of religion (temples to farming)
Villages Cities • Villages began to grow through trading with other villages. (Grow into Cities) • Government, Religion, and Class Systems all began to develop. • Less people for farming means more people for everything else
5 Characteristics of a Civilization • 1. Advanced Cities • 2. Specialized Workers • 3. Complex Institutions • 4. Record Keeping • 5. Advanced Technology
1. Advanced Cities • Cities were not only large population centers but became the centers of trade which led to the sharing of knowledge and wealth.
2. Specialized Workers • The large food supply allowed for a group of people to become artisans who made things by hand such as clothing, jewelry, weapons, and pottery.
3. Complex Institutions • Large populations called for government to rule them and religion to inspire them. Government & Religion = Happy People
4. Record Keeping • With new laws, taxes, and trading taking place, civilizations realized they needed a system of record keeping • Sumerian Scribes developed a system of writing called cuneiform (meaning wedge shaped) in order to keep records.
5. Advanced Technology • Workers always looked for ways to make their work faster and easier. • Metal workers found that copper and tin together would make bronze which was stronger than other metals. (The Bronze Age)
City States in Mesopotamia (2 Terms) • 1. Mesopotamia: Means land between two rivers and is the modern day middle east. • 2. Fertile Crescent: Refers to the rich farming area in Mesopotamia
Challenges in Mesopotamia • 1. Unpredictable Weather • 2. No natural barriers for defense • 3. Limited natural resources (building materials)
Solutions in Mesopotamia • 1. Provide constant water through irrigation • 2. Build City Walls for protection • 3. Trade goods such as food and tools for raw materials to build with
The City State • A city and the surrounding land formed a city-state. • City-States acted like modern day independent nations. • Sumer became one of the first large ones
Dynasties • Rulers of city-states began passing down power to their eldest sons which kept the power in the family and created ruling dynasties.
Polytheism • The belief in more than one god.
Cultural Diffusion • The process of a new idea or product spreading from one culture to another.
Sumerian (Dominant Ethnic Group in Mesopotamia) Advances • 1. Arithmetic and Geometry to help build city walls and massive temples. • 2. Architecture such as arches, columns, ramps, and the pyramid. • 3. Cuneiform, one of the first known systems of writing.
The First Empire: The Akkadians • King Sargon and the Akkadians united all of Mesopotamia under Sargon’s rule creating the first empire.
Babylonian Empire • An Empire brings together several peoples, nations, or independent states under one ruler. • A nomadic tribe known as the Amorites moved into Mesopotamia and conquered the region. • Their Capital became the city of Babylon
Hammurabi • Emperor at the peak of the Babylonian Empire from 1792 BC to 1750 BC. • Established the first known code of laws. • Had the law code written on tablets and spread all over the empire • Contained 282 specific laws and had different laws for rich and poor and men and women.
Create Your Own Government • Create a poster that has the following: • Name your Government/Dynasty • 2. Name your leader and 3 adjectives to describe them. • 3. What type of Religion? Name one or some of your gods • 4. What is the most important law in your government? What is the punishment? • 5. Draw an image/symbol depicting your government/dynasty
Egypt Divided • Upper Egypt: Southern Egypt with a higher elevation and more mountains. • Lower Egypt: Northern Egypt centered around the Nile River Delta. • The Nile River is the lifeline between these two regions.
Egypt United • King Narmer unites upper and lower Egypt around 3,000 BC
A New Type of Government • Pharaohs: The Egyptian Kings who were considered living Gods • Mesopotamian kings were considered representatives of the Gods • Theocracy: Government where rule is based on religious authority.