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  2. The Slow Progress Toward African American Voting Rights

  3. 15th AMENDMENT • 1869 • Extended the right to vote to all males regardless of race

  4. POLL TAX • a fee paid in order to vote • used to discriminate against black voters

  5. LITERACY TESTS • Reading tests required to prove one could read in order to register to vote • Often asked absurd questions, such as “How many words are in the Constitution?” “How many bubbles are in a bar of soap?” • Designed to keep blacks from voting after the Civil War

  6. GRANDFATHER CLAUSE • A law that exempted voters from the literacy test if they had voted before or if their grandfathers had voted • This ensured that the literacy test did not keep too many illiterate whites from voting.

  7. 1 JIM CROW LAWS Laws in southern states that required segregation of the races and promoted racial discrimination Segregated Bus Station in Dallas, Texas

  8. 2 SEGREGATION • A policy of keeping the races separate in public. • Different schools, parks, restaurants, etc. for different races

  9. 3 DISCRIMINATION to treat others differently (usually we think of being treated unfairly) because of race, religion, gender, etc.




  13. 4 PLESSY v. FERGUSON 1896 - Supreme Court case that ruled that segregation was legal as long as the facilities were “separate but equal.”

  14. 5 24TH AMENDMENT • 1962 • abolished the poll tax

  15. 6 CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Political activism in the 1950s and 1960s to extend equal treatment and equal rights to all citizens regardless of race

  16. W.E.B. DUBOIS • Early civil rights activist • First African-American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University • Founded the NAACP in 1910

  17. NAACP • Founded in 1909 • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • Organization dedicated to achieving equalityfor people of all races and ending racial violence in the South

  18. 7 BROWN v. TOPEKA BOARD OF EDUCATION • 1954 • Supreme Court case that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson • Made segregation in schools illegal - ordered schools to integrate • Eventually applied to other public facilities as well

  19. 8 THURGOOD MARSHALL First black Supreme Court Justice in 1967 Nominated by President Johnson

  20. 9 INTEGRATION The process of putting the races together in public places Integration in Clinton, TN schools: Dec. 1956

  21. 10 LITTLE ROCK CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL • 1957 • Arkansas Governor defied the Supreme Court and President Eisenhower by refusing to integrate Central High. • The Governor used National Guard troops to block the entry of 9 African-American students. continued

  22. 10 LITTLE ROCK CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL • Mobs of angry people swarmed the high school to protest integration. • Eisenhower placed the National Guard under federal control. • He then sent more federal troops (101st Airborne) to Little Rock to escort the “Little Rock Nine” to classes.

  23. 101st Airborne escort the Little Rock 9 into Central High School

  24. The Little Rock Nine

  25. Army transport of students to Central High School, 1957

  26. Whites protest integration at the Arkansas State Capitol

  27. Little Rock Nine 50 years later at museum dedication (2007)

  28. Peaceful Strategies for Gaining Civil Rights

  29. 11 SNCC • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (“Snick”) • Organized in 1960 • Created to give young students a more active role in the struggle for equality • Participated in sit-ins, marches, and boycotts and other protests

  30. CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE • A term coined by Henry David Thoreau and adopted by many civil rights leaders • Non-violent protest • The process of fighting an injustice or unfair law by disobeying it

  31. 12 BOYCOTT • Refusing to buy goods and services from companies/businesses until they change their policy • Very effective tool when large numbers of people participate • A favorite tool of the colonists during the American Revolution and a favorite tool of civil rights leaders even today

  32. 13 ROSA PARKS • December 1955 - She refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a Montgomery, Alabama bus. • She was arrested for breaking segregation laws. • Instigated the Montgomery Bus Boycott

  33. Rosa Parks Civil Rights Pioneer 1955

  34. 14 MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT • Civil Rights leaders, including MLK, organized a boycott of the bus system in Montgomery • 50,000 blacks refused to use buses • Bus company lost money, but still refused to integrate • Supreme Court ruled that bus segregation was unconstitutional • Boycott lasted until Nov. 1956

  35. 15 SIT-IN • Protest in which people go to a segregated business and place an order. • If they are refused service, they just sit there until they are served or forced to leave. • Forces businesses to choose between integrating or having a racial disruption.

  36. February 1960 - Sit-in at a lunch counter in Greensboro North Carolina

  37. Sit-in in Nashville, Tenn. becomes violent

  38. April, 1960Home of Nashville attorney who defended sit-in participants was bombed

  39. Rosa Parks at the front of the bus

  40. 16 MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. • Baptistpreacher in Montgomery, Alabama – 26 years old • Helped organize the bus boycott • Became a major civil rights leader • Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 • Assassinated in Memphis, Tenn. in April, 1968 continued

  41. 16 MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. • Followers practiced civildisobedience and passiveresistance • Organized various peacefulmarches throughout the nation • March on Washington - “I have a dream” speech

  42. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  43. 17 FREEDOM RIDES • Organized by SNCC • May 4, 1961 - 2 buses filled with black and white activists depart Washington D.C. destined to travel through 7 southern states on the way to New Orleans • Meant to test whether the South would obey the Supreme Court rulings to desegregate buses and other facilities continued

  44. “Freedom Ride” route through the South

  45. 17 FREEDOM RIDES • Riders were beaten by angry white mobs and arrested along the way • One bus was disabled and firebombed in Alabama, and escaping riders were attacked • Other riders took their place and continued • The “freedom riders” continued throughout the summer of 1961

  46. Freedom Rider bus burns in Alabama, May 1961

  47. Freedom Riders protected by National Guardsmen

  48. 18 “Project C” • April, 1963 – MLK and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference organized a series of protests, demonstrations, and sit-ins Birmingham, Alabama to protest segregation • C = Confront

  49. Peaceful protestors in Birmingham

  50. 19 BIRMINGHAM RIOT • Local police used attack dogs and high-pressure fire hoses to disperse crowds • Protesters were beaten with clubs • 900 of them were jailed. continued