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1914-1918: The World at War. Differing Viewpoints. “The Great War” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”. Causes of the War. M.A.N.I.A. (Causes of WW I). M ilitarism A lliances N ationalism I mperialism

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slide2

Differing Viewpoints

  • “The Great War”
  • “The War to End All Wars”
  • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
m a n i a causes of ww i
M.A.N.I.A. (Causes of WW I)
  • Militarism
  • Alliances
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
1 militarism arms race
1. Militarism & Arms Race
  • Building up the military (tanks, guns, boats, etc.)
slide6

2. The Alliance System

Triple Entente:

Triple Alliance:

slide7

Two Armed Camps!

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

slide8

The Major Players: 1914-17

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Nicholas II [Rus]

Wilhelm II [Ger]

George V [Br]

Victor Emmanuel II [It]

Enver Pasha[Turkey]

Pres. Poincare [Fr]

Franz Josef [A-H]

slide12

Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914

The“Powder Keg”of Europe

slide16

The Assassin:

GavriloPrincip

the plot
The Plot
  • Serbian nationalists (Black Hand) wanted Bosnia to join Serbia.
  • They thought that assassinating the Archduke would start a war which would lead to uniting Serbia.
  • Gavrilo Princip shot Ferdinand and his wife Sophia in Sarajevo.
the ultimatum
The Ultimatum
  • Austria-Hungary believed that the Serbian gov’t was behind the assassination.
  • AH issues an ultimatum to allow AH to enter Serbia to investigate.
  • Serbia rejects the ultimatum.
  • AH declares war against Serbia on July 28, 1914.
europe is at war
Europe is at War!
  • Russia mobilizes its army on July 29 to support Serbia (only had plans to mobilize against both AH and Germany).
  • Germany mobilized and declared war on Russia on Aug 1 (Germany’s plans were to mobilize against both Russia & France).
the fighting begins
The Fighting Begins!
  • Germany declared war France August 3 because war plans (Schieffen plan) called to attack France first and attack through neutral Belgium.
  • Because Germany cut through Belgium Britain declared war on Germany on August 4.
slide23

Mobilization

  • Home by Christmas!
  • No major war in 50 years!
  • Nationalism!

It's a long way to Tipperary,

It's a long way to go;

It's a long way to Tipperary,

To the sweetest girl I know!

Goodbye, Piccadilly,

Farewell, Leicester Square,

It's a long, long way to Tipperary,

But my heart's right there!

slide25

Recruits of the Central Powers

A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

Austro-Hungarians

slide43

German Poster

Think of Your Children!

slide48

Trench Warfare

“No Man’s Land”

slide49

Verdun – February, 1916

  • German offensive.
  • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
slide50

The Somme – July, 1916

  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
slide64

The Airplane

“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

slide65

The Flying Aces of World War I

FrancescoBarraco, It.

Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br.

Eddie Rickenbacher, US

Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”]

Rene PaukFonck, Fr.

Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.

slide69

FlameThrowers

GrenadeLaunchers

slide70

Poison Gas

Machine Gun

slide76

1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies

50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

slide77

11 a.m., November 11, 1918

The Armistice is Signed!

slide81

Turkish Genocide Against Armenians

A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!