Grade 8 Social Studies • Chapter 6 • The First World War • 1914-1918
Newfoundland at War World War I lasted from 1914 to 1918. It began as a conflict between several European powers.
Triple Alliance vs. Triple Entente Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy vs. Britain, France, Russia
When Britain went to war Newfoundland, as well as other dominions of the British Empire, considered themselves at war as well
The feeling was that if Britain was defeated democratic government would be in danger
After the United States entered the war in 1917, the war was called the “war to make the world safe for democracy”
Reasons why Newfoundlanders were involved in World War I : 1. thought the war would not last long 2. signed up for adventure / return as heroes • 3. source of employment 4. sense of pride and loyalty to their “mother country” - Great Britain. 5. felt they would lose democratic government and security if they lost 6. Newfoundlanders convinced by propaganda to take up the fight for liberty and justice against Germany.
Many people enlisted out of a deep sense of pride and loyalty to Great Britain. This is known as patriotism.
While many people chose to enlist in the armed forces the governments of Newfoundland and Britain felt they needed more young men to fight.
Patriotism:sense of pride or loyalty to your country. Propaganda:information used to promote a political cause or point of view.
Propaganda techniques included persuading people that the enemy is evil, that the enemy is trying to destroy your freedom, that the enemy wants to take away your land and rights, etc
Propaganda Poster Assignment On a legal size sheet of paper (8 ½ x 14), design your own propaganda war poster to persuade people that they should join the armed forces to fight for their country. Completely color your poster Purpose of your poster should be clear to the viewer Include a lot of detail Should have some sort of emotional appeal for the average citizen to do something Place your name and the country you are representing on the back of your poster
Branches of Service Military (those who fought): • Royal Naval Reserve • Newfoundland Regiment • Canadian and Other Forces Civilian (didn’t fight): • Forestry Corps • Volunteer Aid Detachment (VAD) • Merchant Marine
Royal Naval Reserve The Royal Naval Reserve was formed in 1902 with 600 men from all over the province
The Reserve did not have their own ships so they were placed on ships in the British Navy
Newfoundlanders were known as the best small boatmen in the world and were in big demand on navy ships because of their expertise
The commanders were afraid many of them would not show up, as it was the middle of the fishing season
They showed true patriotism as every one of the 600 arrived, even though many of them had to walk 80 or 100 km’s to reach a railway station or steamer
Around 2050 Newfoundlanders served with the reserve during the war and 192 were killed
The Newfoundland Regiment The Newfoundland Regiment fought in several major battles in World War I
291 soldiers were killed and 2314 were wounded. 1 in 7 of the young men in St. John’s between the ages of 18 and 22 were killed
This was a much higher percentage of soldiers killed than most regiments from other places
After its battles in France the Regiment was given the title Royal Newfoundland Regiment by King George V, the only regiment in World War I to be given the title Royal
Seventeen year old Tommy Rickets was the youngest person in the war to win the Victoria Cross for bravery
Video and Audio These are videos of Newfoundlanders during World War I. The first video shows men marching into St. John’s to leave for the war, and the other shows men training for combat. http://www.heritage.nf.ca/greatwar/video/page2.html
Volunteer Aid Detachment This was a group of 40 women who served as nurses and medical personnel. 1 was killed
DO NOT WRITE THIS SLIDE ! One of them, Frances Cluett wrote about the Battle of Beaumont Hamel “This is a very wicked world … you cannot realize what sufferings there are. Some of the misery will ever live in my memory. It seems to me now as though I will always have sad thoughts in my eyes” What do you think this woman is saying?
Forestry Corps 500 Newfoundlanders, mostly loggers from central Newfoundland went to Scotland to cut wood for the war effort. 11 were killed
Member of the Forestry Corps VAD Workers
5000 men served in the merchant Marine as sailors on unarmed tankers and freighters that kept Britain in supplies during the war years. 115 of these men died Merchant Marine
Other Forces 3100 men served in the Canadian and other Allied Forces 143 0f these people died
14% of the males of the province served in World War I. Since boys and older men were ineligible, a very large percentage of young men between 19 and 36 helped in the war effort
DO NOT WRITE THIS SLIDE! Jot down some thoughts on the effect having so many young men gone from the province would have on the people left behind. Remember people did not have the technologies we have today
Photographic Essay: Newfoundlanders Who Served Oversees Look at the pictures on page 129. What factors in their background made these people good candidates for the type of war effort that was required
Read the People in History section on page 130 and consider the following questions for each man : • In what way did the skills of these men enrich the war effort? • What did Newfoundland and Labrador lose and what did Newfoundland and Labrador gain by having these men enlist? • Did these men make the correct decision by enlisting?
Battle of Beaumont Hamel The Battle of Beaumont Hamel was part of the Battle of the Somme and took place on July 1st, 1916, near the village of Beaumont Hamel in France.
The 801 members of the Newfoundland Regiment was ordered “over the top” to cross No Man’s Land – the unoccupied land between the opposing trenches.
As they advanced into No Man’s Land, the soldiers faced heavy machine gun fire, barbed wire, and artillery fire. The battle lasted only 30 minutes, and in that time, 734 soldiers were dead, wounded or missing.
Men ready for battle, 1916. Barbed wire at Beaumont Hamel
Beaumont Hamel An enemy shell bursting at Beaumont Hamel, 1916 Newfoundland soldiers in St. John’s Road support trench, July 1, 1916.
After the battle the British commanding officer said “It was a magnificent display of trained and disciplined valor, and its assault only failed of success because dead men can advance no further”
Beaumont Hamel Today Y Ravine Cemetary The Danger Tree
“A Display of Incredible Courage” • The soldiers who fought in this battle were hailed as heroes because they kept going even as their friends and fellow soldiers died. • Now, July 1 is considered Memorial Day.