Differing Viewpoints • “Family Feud” • “Fall of the Eagles” • “The War to End All Wars” • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.
A few years earlier, Bosnia had been taken over by Austria-Hungary, a move that angered many Bosnians who wanted closer ties to nearby Serbia and other Slavic ethnic groups. • On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, made an official visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Austria-Hungary's province of Bosnia. Ferdinand was heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. • On the day of the visit, several terrorists, trained and armed by a Serbian group, waited in the crowd.
The Assassin: GavriloPrincip Early in the day, as the royal couple rode through the city in an open car, a terrorist hurled a bomb at their car. The bomb bounced off the hood and exploded nearby. Unharmed, the couple continued their visit. Another terrorist, Gavrilo Princip, was waiting farther down the route. When the car came into view, Princip fired several shots into the car, killing the royal couple.
Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!
Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians
Spies • “Mata Hari” • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle • German Spy!
Both the Allies and the Central powers launched propaganda campaigns designed to whip up support for their side. Propaganda is information or rumor spread by a group or government to promote its own cause or ideas or to damage an opposing cause or idea. The information in the propaganda may or may not be accurate. Either way, the intention of propaganda is not to inform, but rather to persuade others to adopt the view or to take the action supported by the propagandist.
German Poster Think of Your Children!
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916 • German offensive. • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916 • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.