The World Wars and their Aftermath: 1914 - 1989 • It is estimated that almost 63 million people were killed as a result of these two wars. • The monetary cost of these wars is estimated at a staggering 1.1 trillion dollars. • The Cold War, 1945 - 1989, saw the continuation of hostilities. This resulted in the loss of more lives and the wasteful spending of countless billions of dollars. • This era has been responsible for reshaping the planet and our lives.
We have invented weapons that can end life as we know it on this planet. • People have lived with the threat of WW III hanging over their heads since the end of WW II. • Have we learned anything from this era? Only time will tell.
"Q" What were the four M. A. I. N. causes of WorldWar I? • Militarism b. Alliances c. Imperialism d. Nationalism • Although the war started in 1914, these causes have been leading to the brink of war for well over a hundred years. • Imperialism: One of the greatest causes of WW I was imperialism. This competition for markets, raw materials, and trade began with the Industrial Revolution. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7kp3vf1uKA
"Q" How did Imperialism lead to war? • a. European nations began an intense rivalry for the materials necessary to industrialize. • This rivalry materialized itself in the "scramble" for Africa and the "spheres of influence" created in China.
b. Imperialism was also taking place in Europe. Both Austria and Russia were interested in the Balkan Peninsula. • They were interested in this territory because they needed access to the seas in order to compete with the Industrial west. • The "Powder Keg" (as the Balkan Peninsula was referred to) is ultimately where WW I began. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=njINCi9iIrA&feature=fvsr
Nationalism: The loyalty and devotion people felt toward their countries was another contributing factor that ultimately led to war. • "Q" How did Nationalism lead to WW I? • A. One of the biggest problems with Nationalism is when it becomes Extreme Nationalism. People get Blinded by this and become prejudiced.
b. The history of Europe was filled with many wars. The countries that lost these wars wanted to get revenge. • One example was the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zYV-qYeWPkk&feature=fvwrel • gulags
c. The ethnic minorities (victims of imperialism) wanted to regain their freedom. One such group was the Black Hand, in Serbia.
A philosophy that believes in having a strong military Militarism contributed the start of WW I because As soon as one country in Europe began to increase their military power, so did the others. This "competition" led to the belief that might makes right. Once countries felt they were prepared for war, all they needed was the excuse to launch the invasion Militarism
Nations looking for “Friends” to help achieve their goals. Many countries in Europe felt that they couldn't keep up with the more powerful countries on their own. This led them to seek allies in order to maintain the "Balance of Power.“ Alliances
"Q" How did the formation of the Alliances lead to WW I? • After the Franco-Prussian War, Otto von Bismarck (Prime Minister of Germany) established a series of treaties with Austria and Russia that kept France isolated. If France were isolated they couldn't get revenge for the Franco-Prussian War.
By 1907 The sides were now drawn for the start of war: the Triple Alliance vs. the Triple Entente. • * Once the war began, the sides were referred to as: • The Central Powers: Turkey, Germany, Austria-Hungary • The Allies: England, France, Russia, Italy, and the USA (1917)
The Triple Alliance: (Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary) if any nation were attacked by two or more nations all would help to fight the war. • The Reinsurance Treaty: (Germany and Russia) would come to each other’s aid if they were attacked. • Both these treaties were for defensive purposes and helped to isolate France. • The other piece to the puzzle for Bismarck was to keep England isolated as well.
Traditionally, the English remained isolated unless their overseas interests were in jeopardy. As a result, Bismarck chose not to build a navy or get involved in overseas ventures. • Bismarck was dismissed as the Prime Minister in 1890 by Kaiser Wilhelm II, after Bismarck was dismissed; the Reinsurance Treaty was not renegotiated, leaving Russia without an ally. In 1894 Russia and France signed the Franco-Russian Alliance.
The Kaiser also became involved in the construction of a navy to pursue foreign territories. This aroused the suspicion of the British, and in 1904the French and British signed the Entente Cordial. • By 1907 the British and the Russians had also signed a treaty. The sides were now drawn for the start of war: the Triple Alliance vs. the Triple Entente.
All that the two sides needed was an excuse to mobilize their armies. The assassination of Archduke Frantz Ferdinand was the excuse that started the Great War. • * Once the war began, the sides were referred to as: • The Central Powers: Turkey, Germany, Austria-Hungary • The Allies: England, France, Russia, Italy, and the USA (1917)
"Q" What was the immediate cause of WW I? • In 1914 the Archduke of Austria Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by A nationalist group called the “Black Hand”, and the excuse finally presented itself. • Germany issued the famous "blank check" to the Austrians and Europe was now on the verge of war. • The Austrians issued a list of demands to the Serbian government. They hoped this would finally end Slavic Nationalism.
The Serbians, who were counting on the Russians, who were counting on the French, who in turn were counting on the British, refused the demands and by August 3rd war was declared. England declared war Aug. 4th when Germany attacked France through Belgium and violated Belgian neutrality.
"Q" What were the characteristics of WW I? • It was the first "total war” in the history of Europe. The destruction and losses were staggering. • Trench warfare was used for the 1st time in history on land • The Germans waged "unrestricted submarine warfare" this resulted in the loss of many civilian ships, including the Lusitania, which was one of the reasons for American Involvement. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-LxzD6Luj4&feature=relmfu • Simulation • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCduRtJQ7gE&feature=related
Weapons of WW I • - Submarines • - Machine guns • - Airplanes • - Poison gas • - Tanks • Trench war • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4gv3DUl43Ew
Trench Warfare • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9iR0xJW-Fk
Terms of the Versailles Treaty • a. Loss of territories: Germany lost land in Europe to Poland, France, and Czechoslovakia. • b. The countries that lost WW I lost their colonial possessions. • c. Disarmament: all war industries in Germany were ordered to end. The armed forces were drastically reduced.
d. The Germans were forced to sign a provision that blamed them for the start of the war. This is referred to as the "war guilt clause." • e. Germany was required to pay reparations, although no figure was worked out at this time. • f. The League of Nations: This is the 1st international peace keeping organization in the world. It was the idea of President Woodrow Wilson. It was intended to make this the " the war to end all wars."
Although in theory the League sounded good, there were many problems: • 1. The United States never joined • 2. Russia was not allowed to join. They became communist in 1917. • 3. Germany was denied entry until 1926, they dropped out in 1933. • 4. Italy dropped out in1937. • 5. Japan dropped out in1933.
6. It didn't have a military and it couldn't force nations to comply with its demands. • g. Many new nations were created in Eastern Europe to end the problems of nationality. Instead it created many more problems than it hoped to end. • * The Treaty of Versailles was supposed to end the hostilities in Europe; instead it ultimately was the fuel that ignited WW II.
Post World War EuropeBetween the years 1919 and 1939 several totalitarian states were created in Europe. The rise of totalitarianism is one of the contributing causes of World War II. • "Q" What is Totalitarianism? • It is a system of government where its political party and their leaders control the social, economic, political, intellectual, cultural, and spiritual lives of the people.
Seven Principles of Totalitarianism • Totalitarian States are characterized by single party political systems. • Totalitarian systems tend to fall to the control of single leaders. • Totalitarian regimes are characterized by a commitment to a specific ideology. • A totalitarian state seeks to subordinate all social institutions to the control of the state
5. To control the behavior of its citizens, totalitarian regimes recognize no limits to the means by which their ends are achieved. 6. The behavior and thoughts of their citizens are controlled by maintaining control over all sources of information. 7. Totalitarianism is a political, social, and economic system which uses any means available to subject the individual to the goals and leadership of the state.
"Q" What factors contributed to the rise of Totalitarianism in Europe? • a. The Great Depression: The cost of rebuilding and repairing was too staggering to handle. The governments in power after the war were blamed for not properly handling the problems. • b.The Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations: Many nations resumed imperialism to help recuperate from the depression. The League couldn’t stop this. • c. The Treaty of Versailles: The harsh terms inspired a desire for revenge by the Germans.
d. Nationalism: Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, and Franco promised to return their countries to their rightful places of European dominance. • The new nations created by the treaty in Eastern Europe did not solve the problems of nationality. It added to them. • e. Fear of Communism: Business people in Western Europe were afraid of communism being exported from the USSR. They sided with the parties that promised to repel communism.
f. The use of Scapegoats: In Germany the Jews were blamed for the problems of post WW I. • * One of the most effective tools used to manipulate the citizens of these totalitarian states was propaganda. • The successful leaders were able to indoctrinate their citizens to "see" things their way.
The Road to World War II • 1. In 1935 Hitler addressed the people of Germany and promised to rebuild Germany. He laid out the groundwork for this plan in several parts: • a. Lebensraum: he promised the living space that the Germans needed to once again become a powerful society. • b. Nuremberg Laws: German Jews were denied citizenship. They could no longer own businesses, they lost their homes and jobs, and they were made to wear the Star of David on their clothes.