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PART I: THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION PowerPoint Presentation
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PART I: THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION

PART I: THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION

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PART I: THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION

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  1. PART I:THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION

  2. PART I • Paleolithic Age • Humans had spread around globe • Humans were hunter-gatherers • Life style could not support large numbers • Man makes tools of stone, bone • Began around 9,000 BCE • Rise of agriculture • Culture becomes increasingly complex

  3. RISE OF NEOLITHIC • Areas where Neolithic cultures arose • Harsh environments • Water shortages • Few reliable sources of foodstuffs • Causes of the Neolithic Revolution • Development, spread of agriculture • Domestication of animals • Improvement of technology

  4. ASPECTS OF NEOLITHIC AGE • Effects of Neolithic Age • Sedentary culture develops • Surplus of food leads to increased populations • Rise of differentiated occupations • Complex cultures • Gender relations change • Humans begin to change environment • Communicable diseases become common

  5. PALEOLITHIC vs. NEOLITHIC • Many resist sedentarism • Pastoralists • Hunter-Gatherers survive until 20th century • Development uneven across regions • Change often slow • Indigenous development vs. diffusion

  6. CIVILIZATION’S 1ST PHASE • Five major centers beginning around 4,500 BCE • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) • Nile River Valley • Indus River Valley • Northern China (Huang He) • Central America • Civilizations arose in few areas, spread out • Often arose around control of water • Called “hydraulic” (Hydro = water) civilizations • Irrigation, flood control at center of power, changes • Ancient period lasts generally to 1000 BCE

  7. THE CULTURE OF CIVILIZATION • Permanent Institutions • Religious: Theocracies, priesthoods, polytheism • Political: Monarchy, aristocracy, militaries • Social: Rise of classes • Gender: Patriarchy • Trade and Commerce • Systems of Record Keeping • Intellectual Traditions • Arts, Architecture • Literatures

  8. WIDER CONTACTS • Each civilization had particular patterns • Effects of Geography • Either facilitated, hindered communication • Strengthened, weakened local culture • Contacts • War, Trade, Diseases • Nomads • Migration

  9. PROBLEMS OF WORLD HISTORY • Role of technology, effects on environment • Comparisons between civilizations • Importance of early heritages • How much did ancient influence later cultures • How much is later, indigenous development • When did ancient period end? • Can we compare ancient, modern eras?