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Origins of the WW II. Lesson Essential Question: Could WWII have been prevented?. Remember… One More Lollypop and Then You All Go Home!”. The Great Depression to WWII . The effects of the Depression are felt around the world What happens when economic times are bad?

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origins of the ww ii

Origins of the WW II

Lesson Essential Question:

Could WWII have been prevented?


Remember… One More Lollypop and

Then You All Go Home!”

the great depression to wwii
The Great Depression to WWII
  • The effects of the Depression are felt around the world
  • What happens when economic times are bad?
    • Increase in racism (scapegoats)
    • Increase in radicalism
the treaty of versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Do we remember what this is?
  • When was it signed?
  • What was the effects of this Treaty?
the treaty of versailles1
The Treaty of Versailles
  • A “peace” treaty signed by Allied powers and Germany on June 18, 1919
  • It assigned Germany responsibility for the war.
  • Required Germany to pay reparations to Allied countries
  • Reduced Germany’s territory
  • Didn’t allow for Germany to have an army
the treaty of versailles2
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Germans do not like the treaty –
    • the assume the guilt
    • paying war reparations
    • Not being able to have a military
  • Do you think this treaty is going to keep the world peace so many hoped for?
policy of appeasement
Policy of Appeasement
  • What is Appeasement?
    • Yielding to an enemy’s demands in order to maintain peace
  • Does it work?
    • Ah what are we studying right now… you be the judge 
end of wwi
End of WWI
  • At the end of WWI the Treaty of Versailles was signed to end of all wars
  • Problem – it blamed Germany and put the war debts
hitler and appeasement
Hitler and appeasement
  • France and Great Britain still recovering from WWI – will go to great costs to avoid another war
  • France and GB distrust Hitler – but decided on appeasement
  • Why?
appeasement and sudeten land
Appeasement and Sudeten Land
  • Chamberlin (the British leader) said didn’t make sense to go to war over such a small territory…. Let Germany have it… not worth war
  • What do you think?
munich pact 19381
Munich Pact - 1938
  • France, Great Britain, Italy, and Germany signed
  • Basically said Hitler would not expand beyond the Sudetenland of German speaking Czechoslovakia
what do you think
What do you think?
  • Is Appeasement a good idea?
let s meet the players
Let’s meet the players
  • Stalin
  • Mussolini
  • Hitler
  • Tojo
  • Prime Minister Churchill
  • FDR
Stalin’s Soviet Union
  • Lenin’s worldwide Communist revolution never occurred.
  • Stalin takes over after Lenin’s death in 1924.
Stalin’s Economic Plans
  • Modernize agriculture
  • He wanted farmers to combine family farms into farms run by the state (country). –collective farms.
  • State takeover of land took several years– resistance was met with confiscation of food—also sent to labor camps
  • Collectivization led to loss of human lives and shortage of food—rationing.
Stalin’s Reign of Terror
  • Purges- elimination of enemies.
  • Great Purge began in 1934 w/ local party officials and farmers
  • By 1939 more than 7 million arrested at all levels of society.
  • A million were executed and millions more were sent to labor camps.
  • Purges did eliminate threats to Stalin– real or imagined.
totalitarianism government stalin
Totalitarianism Government - Stalin
  • Communist party as the only authority
  • State planning of the economy
  • Brutal purges to maintain political control
  • Complete control of a persons life – every aspect
italy after wwi
Italy after WWI
  • Inflation (extreme) and labor strikes hurt the economy
  • Communists threatened to take over
  • Mad at Versailles because failed to give Italians the land they thought they deserved.
Mussolini – Italy
  • Mussolini took advantage of these condition to become a leader and ultimately a dictator
  • Benito Mussolini had fought and been wounded in WWI.
  • Great speaker, he began to attract followers.
  • 1919 formed the Fascist Party
fascism and italy
Fascism and Italy
  • Extreme nationalism in which the state comes first and the individual liberties is secondary
  • Strongly oppose communism and democracy
  • They favor military values, violence, and ruthless leadership
Mussolini continued….
  • Called himself Il Duce (the leader)
  • His tone was often emotional and dramatic.
Mussolini continued….
  • Used gangs of thugs known as Black shirts to terrorize those who opposed him.
  • Vowed to end economic poverty—outlawed political parties, ended elections, became dictatorship.
At first Mussolini received praise from European countries, they soon regret this praise.
  • Had plans to form a new Roman Empire.
  • October 1935—invades Ethiopia, by 1936 Ethiopia was under Italian control.
characteristics of fascism in italy
Characteristics of Fascism in Italy
  • Extreme nationalism
  • Individual liberties CRUSHED
  • State is paramount
  • Bring back the glory of ancient Rome through military conquest
adolf hitler

Adolf Hitler

Rise to Power

something to ponder
Something to ponder…

how does this little boy on the left became the man on the right who was ultimately responsible for the death of about 50 million people all over the world!!




military service
Military Service

Adolf left Austria at the age of 24 to avoid mandatory military service that was required of all men.

But he did sign up for military service at the start of WW I. He joined a Bavarian unit of the German Army. This is a picture of Hitler listening to an enlistment speech.

world war i
World War I
  • Excited to fight for Germany.
  • Found a home fighting for the Fatherland.
  • Highest rank held was corporal.
  • Was a regimental messenger, not an easy job at all.
military record
Military Record
  • Was awarded the Iron Cross twice. (5 medals overall)
  • Highest military honor in German Army.
  • Single handedly captured 4 French soldiers.
  • Blinded by gas attack towards end of war.
german loss in ww i
German Loss in WW I
  • Hitler was devastated when he heard the news of the German surrender.
  • He was appalled at the anti-war sentiment among the German civilians.
  • Believed there was an anti-war conspiracy that involved the Jews and Marxists.
  • Also, felt that the German military did not lose the war, but that the politicians (mostly Jews) at home were responsible for the defeat.
nazi party is formed
NAZI Party is Formed
  • Hitler began to think big for the German Worker’s Party
  • Began placing ads for meetings in anti-Semitic newspapers
  • Hitler changed the name to National Socialist German Worker’s Party or the NAZIS
party platform
Party Platform
  • Hitler drafted a platform of 25 points
  • Revoke Versailles Treaty
  • Revoke civil rights of Jews
  • Confiscate any war profits

Besides changing the party name, the red flag with the SWASTIKA was adopted as the party symbol

beer hall putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
  • October 30, 1923
  • Hitler held a rally in Munich beer hall and declared revolution
  • Led 2000 men in take over of Bavarian Government
  • It failed and Hitler was imprisoned
trial and jail
Trial and Jail
  • At his trial (Hitler was charged with treason), he used the opportunity to speak about the NAZI platform and spread his popularity.
  • The whole nation suddenly knew who Adolf Hitler was and what he stood for
  • He was sentenced to five years, but actually only served about 9 months
  • When he left prison, he was ready to go into action again.
mein kampf
Mein Kampf
  • Hitler’s book “My Struggle” - wrote while in jail
  • Sold 5 million copies, made him rich
  • Topics included: Jews were evil, Germans were superior race, Fuhrer principal, dislike of Communism and Democracy and need to conquer Russia
appeal of hitler
Appeal of Hitler
  • Germany was in the midst of an economic depression with hyper-inflation
  • Hitler was a WW I hero who talked about bringing glory back to the “Fatherland”
  • He promised the rich industrialists that he would end any communist threat in Germany
  • Constantly blamed Jews for Germany’s problems, not the German people.
  • Hitler was an excellent public speaker.
strong arm tactics
Strong Arm Tactics
  • The “Brownshirts” or SA (Stormtroopers)
  • SA was used to put down opposition parties
  • Threatened and beat up Jews and ant-Nazi voters
  • Wore brownshirts, pants and boots
  • Numbered almost 400,000 by 1932
absolute power
Absolute Power
  • German economy was improving, people were happy
  • Hilter had not political opposition
  • 1st concentration camp opened in 1933
  • Began rearming German Army for expansion of the Reich
things to know on hitler nazism
Things to know – on Hitler / Nazism
  • Extreme nationalism
  • Territorial expansion to create “living space”
  • Civil Liberties abolished
  • Force used to eliminate opposition
did you know
Did you know:
  • The U.S. Navy will spend as much as $600,000 to modify the appearance of a barracks complex that resembles a swastika from the air .(Google Earth)
wow that was a lot
Wow that was a lot
  • Jot down what you think might have been some of the reasons Hitler was able to come to power
  • Why were the people willing to believe what he had to offer?
Japan Builds an Empire
  • Early 20th century- Japan to increases its sphere of influence.
  • a military dictatorship soon takes control of government.
  • With a booming population and Japan required more resources.
  • Manchurian Incident
Japan staged Chinese attack.
  • Created a “puppet state”.
  • Led to an invasion of China and a stalemate that lasted until 1939.
  • Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere– Japan’s plan to liberate Asia from Western Colonizers.
militarism under tojo
Militarism under Tojo
  • Extreme nationalism
  • Military control of civilian government
  • Territorial expansion to obtain raw materials
great britain neville chamberlain 1937 40
Great Britain: Neville Chamberlain (1937-40)
  • The Great Appeaser
  • Doesn’t want to go to war… gives in at every turn
great britain winston churchill 1940 1945 1951 1955
Great Britain: Winston Churchill 1940-1945, 1951-1955
  • Does not back down
  • Eventually leads Great Britain to Victory
united states franklin d roosevelt
United States: Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Do we know this guy?
  • Yep Good Ole FDR
  • More on him later 

The Treaty seemed to satisfy the "Big Three" overall.

  • It made sure that Germany was too weak to start another European War, yet strong enough to help stop the spread of Communism.It kept the French border with Germany safe from future German attacks.It created the League of Nations. This would help promote peace and trade throughout the world.


Germans hated the treaty, especially Article 231 which blamed them for starting the war.

Many Germans also thought the financial penalties that the treaty imposed upon their country and her people to be immoral and unjust.The German Government that had agreed to the treaty became known as the "November Criminals“.Many German citizens felt that they were now being punished for the mistakes of the Kaiser and German government of August 1914 who had started the war as well as the government of 1919 that had signed the treaty that brought peace.

where is the aid
Where is the Aid?
  • Great Britain and France were not in the financial security to provide more aid to the countries where the dictators rose… Remember…
  • Great Depression
  • No resources to help the countries
military aggression meets a weak response
Military Aggression Meets a Weak Response
  • Early 1930s, Americans favored isolationism.
  • WHY????
  • Depression and bitter memories of WWI
good neighbor policy fdr
Good Neighbor policy - FDR
  • No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another
  • 21 Nations signed
  • US encouraged Japan, Germany, and Italy to abide, but did not back words with actions
militarists expand japan s empire
Militarists Expand Japan’s Empire
  • Example of blatant aggression 1931
  • Japan seized Manchuria
  • This gave Japan resources, isolated them from other countries
  • 1932 – League of Nations said stop and Japan refused
  • Japan left the league
more aggression from japan
More aggression from Japan
  • 1937 – Japanese and Chinese forces clash outside Beijing (China’s capital)
  • Full-fledged ware
  • Japan captured the city
  • 6 week rampage know as Rape of Nanjing
rape of nanjing
Rape of Nanjing
  • Massacred 300,000 civilians
  • Brutally raped about 20,000 Chinese women
  • To Japanese – Chinese were not human they were subhuman
  • We will see that theme a lot 
dictators see this as a go
Dictators see this as a go…
  • When the league does nothing to stop the Japanese, others take that as a sign to go
  • 1933 – Germany pulls out of the league of nations
  • Violation of Treaty of Versailles
germany ignores and moves forward
Germany ignores and moves forward
  • 1933 – begins rebuilding the military
  • 1935 – formed an air force and the start of compulsory military service
  • Openly challenges France by sending troops into the Rhineland
  • Still the league did NOTHING
what about italy
What about Italy?
  • Mussolini begins his quest to build a New Roman Empire
  • October 1935 invades Ethiopia – easy win
  • League puts mild sanctions on Italy…
  • What happens if you don’t stop inappropriate behavior right away?
  • Think about you?
  • Mussolini and Hitler joined a treaty of friendship known as the Rome-Berlin axis
  • Fascism begins to spread – Spanish Civil War Franco (militarist rebels) sought to overthrow the government – supported by Germany and Italy
results of spanish american war
Results of Spanish American war
  • ½ million people die in the 3 year war
  • Nationalist Franco wins and establish a right wing dictatorship…
  • What is happening people… quickly sum up your notes
great britain and france
Great Britain and France
  • What do you call when you give-in to keep the peace?
does appeasing hitler work
Does appeasing Hitler work?
  • Encouraged by events in Italy and Spain and his own success in Rhineland, Hitler began his expansion plan
  • France and Great Britain do little to stop him
hitler sets sights on
Hitler sets sights on ….
  • Austria – unstable government – Germans march in and take over
  • Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia 1938.
  • France and Great Britain now stand up
munich pact1
Munich Pact
  • Chamberlain claims he achieved “peace with honor” and stated “I believe it is peace in our time.”
  • Churchill (the so to be British leader) disagreed “By this time next year we shall know whether the policy of appeasement has appeased, or whether it has only stimulated a more ferocious appetite.”
what about america
What about America?
  • Do we see the writing on the wall?
  • NOPE – we sign the neutrality acts – designed to keep us out of the war.
  • FDR devotes a lot energy to promote peace urging countries to get along… does this work?
hitler plunges europe into war
Hitler Plunges Europe into War
  • So the Munich Pact fails within the first 6 months…
  • Hitler breaks the pact by invading all of Czechoslovakia and seizing control of Prague
  • So France and Great Britain finally draw a line in the sand… any further attacks and WAR… oh boy
hitler and stalin
Hitler and Stalin
  • They sign a non-aggression pact
  • They hate each other – so how long do you think this pact will last?
  • The German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, signed in August 1939
  • Helped protect both for now… however, Hitler planned to attack… he needed the land
war begins
War begins
  • Germany attacks Poland September 1, 1939
  • 2 days later, France and Great Britain – the Allied Powers- declared war
poland collapses
Poland Collapses
  • Germany and USSR forces meet and by October they have control over the country
  • Lightening fast war
  • Bomb railroads, airfields, communication networks, military bases, and other strategic sites.
  • First Poland, then Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
next to fall
Next to fall
  • Denmark, Norway… then Hitler aims for France
  • Happens very fast
  • Remember him – well now he declared war on France and Britain
  • Italy and Germany become the Axis powers
  • June 22nd – France surrendered to Germany
britain alone in the fight
Britain alone in the fight
  • Britain, now lead by Churchill, stood alone against the AXIS powers.
  • Hitler wanted Britain… Britain proved to a tough advocate
germany attacked
Germany attacked
  • From September 1940 to the Spring of 1941 – Germany tried. They bombed cities, airports and other such things, but the British successfully defended their homeland… suddenly there was a new hope… wait is hope powerful?
americans still want to be
Americans still want to be….
  • Isolated from the war… however FDR knew differently. Hitler was evil
  • Hitler sought alliance with US – but that was a no go
the tripartite pact
The Tripartite Pact
  • September 1940 – Japan enters the Axis powers… now if the US joined the war they would have to fight a two front war
  • From west and east
  • Hitler hopped this would keep US out the war.
roosevelt had other plans
Roosevelt had other plans
  • Lend- Lease Act
  • Basically give supplies to Allies lend them arms to Britain and to the Soviets…
  • I am going to give you something you are going to use in war… do you think I would get it back? Nope
all that changes
All that changes
  • December 7, 1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
  • The US was a united front going into war – better watch out 