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Chapter 16 Birthplace of Civilization PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 16 Birthplace of Civilization

Chapter 16 Birthplace of Civilization

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Chapter 16 Birthplace of Civilization

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  1. Chapter 16 Birthplace of Civilization

  2. Birthplace of Civilization 16 Chapter Introduction Section 1Mesopotamia andAncient Egypt Section 2Three World Religions Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

  3. Birthplace of Civilization 16 Chapter Objectives • Explain how farming, writing, and government developed in Mesopotamia. • Examine the artifacts of ancient Egypt.  • Explain the basic beliefs of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.  • Discuss how past civilizations have contributed to our own culture. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  4. Click the speaker button to play the audio.

  5. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Guide to Reading Main Idea The peoples of Mesopotamia and Egypt were among the first to build civilizations.  Terms to Know • empire  • delta  • pharaoh  • pyramid  • hieroglyphics  • papyrus • civilization  • city-state • polytheism  • theocracy  • cuneiform  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  6. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Create a chart like the one on page 466 of your textbook. Write facts about Mesopotamia in the M columnand facts about ancient Egypt in the E column.

  7. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Objectives • Explain the early advancements in Mesopotamia.  • Discuss the ancient Egyptians’ achievements. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  8. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Click the speaker button to play the audio.

  9. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Mesopotamia • Civilization is a term historians use to describe a culture that has reached a certain level of development.  • This development includes cities, a system of writing, specialized workers, organized governments and religions, and the use of technology and metals.  • One of the first civilizations grew in the area of land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.  • The name of this area was Mesopotamia. (pages 466–469) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  10. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Mesopotamia (cont.) • It was part of a larger region known as the Fertile Crescent, which curved from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf.  • Around 4500 B.C., wandering peoples settled in large numbers in Mesopotamia.  • They farmed fertile soil left behind by yearly floods.  • They also created a 12 month calendar based on the phases of the moon, and they invented the plow. (pages 466–469) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  11. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Mesopotamia (cont.) • Some of the villages and towns became city-states, which were made up of the city and farmland around it.  • The earliest of the city-states rose in an area of Mesopotamia called Sumer.  • The Sumerians invented the wheel and the sailboat. • They also created a form of writing known as cuneiform. (pages 466–469) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  12. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Mesopotamia (cont.) • Religion was based on polytheism, or the worship of many gods and goddesses.  • Each city-state was at first a theocracy—it was ruled by religious leaders.  • Around 2300 B.C., the warlike kingdom of Akkad conquered Sumer and several other city-states to create the first empire, or group of states under one ruler. (pages 466–469) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  13. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Mesopotamia (cont.) • The kingdom of Babylon defeated the Akkadian Empire around 1800 B.C. • The greatest Babylonian king was Hammurabi.  • The Code of Hammurabi was an attempt to bring some justice and fairness to the idea of law. • After Hammurabi’s death, the empire split into smaller territories. (pages 466–469) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  14. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Mesopotamia (cont.) • During the 500s B.C., a new Babylonian empire led by Nebuchadnezzar rose and fell. • Among the most important traders of the time were the Phoenicians, who were located mainly in what is now Lebanon.  • The Phoenicians developed an alphabet that gave rise to the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin alphabets still in use today. (pages 466–469) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  15. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 How did the Babylonians contribute to the field of mathematics? The Babylonians contributed to the field of mathematics by developing a number system based on 60. From them, we borrowed the 60-minute hour, 60-second minute, and 360-degree circle. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  16. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Click the speaker button to play the audio.

  17. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Egypt—Gift of the Nile • Like Mesopotamia, Egypt grew out of a river valley—the Nile, the longest river in the world.  • Most ancient Egyptians lived near the Nile or its delta. • The two kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt were united about 3100 B.C. under a great ruler called a pharaoh. • The pharaoh was viewed not only as a ruler and priest, but also as a god. (pages 469–471) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  18. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Egypt—Gift of the Nile (cont.) • Egyptians had a polytheistic religion.  • Important gods were the sun god Re, the river god Hapi, and the sky god Horus.  • Egyptians believed in life after death. • To preserve the body for the next life, it was embalmed, or preserved immediately after death, as a mummy.  • The biggest tombs belonged to the pharaohs and were called pyramids. (pages 469–471) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  19. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Egypt—Gift of the Nile (cont.) • The Egyptians conquered many lands, and also suffered defeats.  • They traded across the eastern Mediterranean and spread their ideas and accomplishments.  • Hieroglyphics is a form of picture writing. • The Egyptians carved or painted hieroglyphics on monuments or papyrus, a plant that grows along the Nile which can be used to make a form of paper. (pages 469–471) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  20. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Egypt—Gift of the Nile (cont.) • Egyptians used a number system based on ten and developed geometry.  • They were able to sew up cuts and set broken bones.  • Egypt eventually grew weak and was conquered by the even greater empires of Greece and Rome. (pages 469–471) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  21. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 In ancient times, how were people and nations able to dominate one another? Even then, people and nations that could use technology were able to dominate, or control, other cultures. The Egyptians used bronze and iron weapons and horse-drawn chariots. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  22. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Defining Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. • A. civilization • B. city-state • C. polytheism • D. theocracy • cuneiform • empire • delta • pharaoh • pyramid • hieroglyphics • papyrus E __ 1. Sumerian writing system __ 2. a culture that has reached a high level of development __ 3. the worship of many gods and goddesses __ 4. villages and towns which were made up of the city and farmland around it __ 5. form of government in which one individual ruled as both religious leader and king A C B D Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  23. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Defining Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. • A. civilization • B. city-state • C. polytheism • D. theocracy • cuneiform • empire • delta • pharaoh • pyramid • hieroglyphics • papyrus H __ 6. Egyptian ruler __ 7. a form of picture writing __ 8. area formed from a soil deposit located at the mouth of a river __ 9. Egyptian paper __10. Egyptian tomb __11. group of states under one ruler J G K I F Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  24. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Recalling Facts History What were the two early forms of writing, and where did they develop? The two early forms of writing were the Sumerian cuneiform and the Phoenician alphabet. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  25. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Recalling Facts (cont.) Geography Where did most ancient Egyptians live? Why? Most ancient Egyptians lived near the Nile River and its delta because the soil there was fertile. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  26. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Recalling Facts (cont.) Math What mathematical contributions did Egyptians make to civilization? The Egyptians developed a number system based on 10, fractions, whole numbers, and geometry. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  27. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Critical Thinking Drawing Conclusions Why were the inventions of the wheel and the sailboat important to Sumer? The wheel helped transportation and the sailboat replaced muscle power with wind power. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  28. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Critical Thinking (cont.) Understanding Cause and Effect Why was Hammurabi’s code of laws an important development? The code of Hammurabi served as a basis for future laws. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  29. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Applying Social Studies Skills Analyzing Maps Look at the map on page 467 of your textbook. What do the locations of the towns have in common? They are located along bodies of water. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  30. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt 16 Close Create a bulletin board display about ancient Egypt with images and captions that highlight important features of the country and its people.

  31. Three World Religions 16 Guide to Reading Main Idea Three of the world’s monotheistic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—developed in Southwest Asia.  Terms to Know • monotheism  • disciple  • five pillars of faith  • hajj • covenant • prophet  • messiah  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  32. Three World Religions 16 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Create a chart like the one on page 473 of your textbook. List important beliefs of each religion.

  33. Three World Religions 16 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Objectives • Describe the world’s three largest monotheistic religions.  • Explain similarities and differences among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  34. Three World Religions 16 Click the speaker button to play the audio.

  35. Three World Religions 16 Judaism • Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are major faiths that are examples of monotheism, or belief in one supreme god.  • Judaism was first practiced by a small group of people in Southwest Asia called the Israelites.  • The followers of Judaism today are known as Jews.  • Their holy book is the Torah. (pages 473–474) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  36. Three World Religions 16 Judaism (cont.) • The Jews believe that they are God’s chosen people and will remain so for as long as they follow God’s laws.  • They believe God made a covenant, or agreement, with Abraham.  • The most well-known of these laws are the Ten Commandments, which were revealed to a prophet, or messenger of God, named Moses. (pages 473–474) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  37. Three World Religions 16 Judaism (cont.) • About 1000 B.C., King David created a kingdom in the area of present-day Israel.  • The capital of this kingdom was Jerusalem.  • Eventually, the Jewish people spread to many countries throughout the world.  • Jewish scholars, writers, artists, and scientists have greatly increased the world’s knowledge. (pages 473–474) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  38. Three World Religions 16 Judaism (cont.) • In some areas Jews have been treated with tolerance.  • In other areas they have been treated cruelly.  • Jews celebrate several important holy days, including Passover, Rosh Hashanah, and Yom Kippur. (pages 473–474) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  39. Three World Religions 16 From whom do the Jewish people believe they are descended? According to Jewish belief, the Jews are descended from Abraham and Sarah, who first worshipped the one God, or Yahweh. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  40. Three World Religions 16 Christianity • Christianity arose from Judaism in Southwest Asia. • Later, it spread to non-Jews. • A Jew named Jesus began preaching in what is today Israel, the West Bank, and Jordan. • Some Jews greeted him as the Messiah, or savior, who would deliver them from the Romans. (pages 475–476) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  41. Three World Religions 16 Christianity (cont.) • Jesus was convicted of treason under Roman law and crucified outside Jerusalem. • His disciples, or followers, proclaimed he then rose from the dead. • They began preaching that Jesus was the Son of God. • The disciples spread Jesus’ teachings across the Roman world and beyond.  • The holy book of the Christians is the Bible. (pages 475–476) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  42. Three World Religions 16 Christianity (cont.) • Christians were often persecuted until the Roman emperor Constantine became a Christian and proclaimed Christianity a lawful religion of the Roman Empire. • Christianity later became divided into Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians.  • A third group—Protestants—formed much later. (pages 475–476) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  43. Three World Religions 16 Christianity (cont.) • Christianity has more followers than any other religion. • Christian holidays include Christmas, Good Friday, and Easter. (pages 475–476) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  44. Three World Religions 16 What is Easter? Easter, believed to be the day that Jesus rose from the dead, is the most important day of the Christian calendar. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  45. Three World Religions 16 Islam • The followers of Islam are called Muslims. • Muslims believe that Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet of Allah, or God. • Muhammad was born A.D. 570 in Makkah.  • He told people there was one God, Allah, before whom all believers are equal. (pages 476–477) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  46. Three World Religions 16 Islam (cont.) • Muhammad’s message angered the rich merchants of Makkah.  • In A.D. 622, Muhammad was forced to flee for safety from Makkah to Madinah.  • Muhammad’s forces eventually defeated armies who came to Madinah.  • Muhammad made Makkah the center of Islam. (pages 476–477) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  47. Three World Religions 16 Islam (cont.) • Over time, Muslim armies, merchants, and scholars spread the faith in Asia, North Africa, and parts of Europe.  • There are two main branches of Islam: Sunnis and Shiites.  • They differ on which leaders should rule in the Islamic community.  • The Muslim holy book is the Quran. (pages 476–477) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  48. Three World Religions 16 Islam (cont.) • The Quran describes the five pillars offaith, or the five obligations all Muslims must fulfill.  • Once in each Muslim’s life, he or she must, if able, make the hajj, or journey to Makkah to pray. (pages 476–477) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.