Chapter 1: Origins, ca. 400,000-1100 B.C.E.
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Chapter 1: Origins, ca. 400,000-1100 B.C.E. i>Clicker Questions. Which of the following best defines civilization ?. A system of manners and social conduct A system of social and political organization and shared way of thinking and believing

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Which of the following best defines civilization?

  • A system of manners and social conduct

  • A system of social and political organization and shared way of thinking and believing

  • A system by which individuals merge themselves and their interest into a larger community

  • A system of culture, art, and theology that explains the larger world

Why did American educational leaders create the “Western civilization” course?

  • Because World War I had renewed interest in Europe and its history

  • To replace Latin, which was being eliminated as a required course in most colleges and universities

  • Because they were concerned that young people were becoming cut off from European intellectual and cultural traditions

  • To appease European political leaders who objected to American world leadership

Artifacts discovered at Avebury and similar stone circle sites prove which of the following?

  • The people worshipped an earth-goddess who symbolized life and brought fertility to the land.

  • The people were enslaved under a powerful clan leader who could force long periods of labor from them.

  • Neighboring clans frequently sought to destroy the circles, for they rejected the religious beliefs of the circle builders.

  • The circles were built over a very short period of time, two to three years at most.

During the Neolithic era, the development of agriculture and transition to settled life

  • weakened the bonds of extended family and kinship networks.

  • occurred in the Near East and then afterward spread to other major civilizations.

  • diminished the practice of trade as tribes no longer moved around.

  • did not occur in the Americas.

The Sumerian system of writing transition to settled life

  • evolved as pigmented inks were used to make symbols on animal parchments.

  • limited each sign to one distinct idea.

  • made its most important breakthrough when scribes began to use signs to represent sounds.

  • reached its fullest development as ideograms allowed signs to symbolize ideas.

In Neolithic society, the building of walls transition to settled life

  • was the most fundamental and universal feature of settled communities.

  • was a symbolic act to define the community, with little practical usage.

  • was not pursued in circumstance where other types of defenses were more effective.

  • tended to inhibit agricultural development by cutting off emerging towns from the countryside.

The patriarch of a tribe in Sumerian society transition to settled life

  • exercised all rights over family members.

  • was not bound by custom or tradition in the governance of his tribe.

  • divided land and property equally between sons and daughters.

  • led the families in the tribe but cooperated with the heads of related families.

Which of the following was a consequence of the harsh environment of Sumer?

  • Sumerians viewed their gods as benevolent creatures who protected them from nature.

  • Sumerians considered their gods weak and insignificant.

  • Sumerians adopted a grim and pessimistic spirit.

  • Sumerians considered the gods to be distant beings who had little contact with humans.

Which of the following environment of Sumer? best characterizes slaves in Sumerian society?

  • They were Africans purchased through trade routes.

  • They were denied all legal rights and protections.

  • They engaged in trade and could make profits and borrow money to buy their freedom.

  • They could not be physically abused by their masters.

How did the Hittites interact with their powerful Egyptian and Babylonian neighbors?

  • Constant warfare among the three powers created instability throughout the Near East.

  • The Hittites believed all foreigners were spiritually impure and worked to destroy all influences from these other cultures.

  • The three powers formed an alliance, calling each other “brother,” that produced an era of peace.

  • The mountainous terrain in Anatolia kept the Hittites largely cut off from the other great powers.

Answer Key for Chapter 1 and Babylonian neighbors?

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

Chapter 2: Small Kingdoms and Mighty Empires in the Near East, ca. 1100-513 B.C.E.

i>Clicker Questions

How did the fall of the large empires of Egypt and the Hittites affect the small kingdoms of the Near East (the Phoenicians and the Hebrews)?

  • The small kingdoms were destroyed and their populations scattered.

  • The small kingdoms became more insular, rejecting foreign influences as impure corruptions of their societies.

  • The small kingdoms passed their local traditions among their neighbors, creating a more common Near Eastern culture.

  • The small kingdoms grew into large powers able to challenge others for dominance in Mediterranean world.

How were the Libyans affected by their conquests in Egypt? Hittites affect the small kingdoms of the Near East (the Phoenicians and the Hebrews)?

  • The Libyans turned against imperial expansion as their victories came with a large loss of life.

  • The Libyans established themselves as a closed caste within Egyptian society in order to maintain their distinct culture.

  • The Libyans adopted Egyptian culture, religion, and way of life.

  • The Libyans turned against imperial expansion, for it would require them to abandon their rural, agricultural society.

As they moved into Palestine, how did the Hebrews interact with their neighbors?

  • The Hebrews destroyed the local peoples, who lacked any means of resistance.

  • The Hebrews fought wars but also mingled with local people, with some Hebrews adopting the local culture.

  • The Hebrews completely adopted the local culture and merged with the local peoples.

  • The Hebrews were rejected by the local peoples as impure foreigners.

When Israel divided after the death of Solomon, what central difference emerged between Israel and Judah?

  • Judah remained a traditional agricultural state, while Israel aggressively pursued commerce and manufacturing.

  • Judah worshipped only Yahweh, while Israel allowed temples for other gods.

  • Judah established a council of tribal leaders to direct affairs, while Israel remained a traditional monarchy.

  • Judah welcomed influences from across the Near East, while Israel culturally isolated itself.

How did the kingdom of Judah survive Assyrian expansion? difference emerged between Israel and Judah?

  • The kingdom of Judah defeated the Assyrian army at the Battle of Armageddon.

  • Judah had no valuable resources that the Assyrians desired.

  • The Assyrians became distracted by a more serious revolt to their north and did not bother with this minor kingdom to their south.

  • The kingdom of Judah became subservient to Assyrian empire.

As nomadic Hebrews transitioned to settled agriculture, how was their society transformed?

  • The roles available to women expanded.

  • The tribe became less important than the extended family.

  • Land came to be owned communally rather than individually.

  • Marriage became increasingly polygamous.

How did Persia’s central geographic feature—a broad central plateau in the heart of the country—affect the region’s development?

  • The plateau offered protection from invaders, isolating the Iranian people culturally and economically.

  • The plateau created a highway between Eastern and Western civilizations and in which nomads and city dwellers interacted.

  • The plateau served as an ideal agricultural environment with ample rainfall that could be collected and stored, providing wealth and security to the region.

  • The plateau linked the interior of the Middle East to the sea, facilitating trade and commerce.

What innovation did the Assyrians bring to palace artwork? central plateau in the heart of the country—affect the region’s development?

  • Interior sculptures mixed the imagery of political and religious figures in order to justify kingly rule.

  • Palace reliefs portrayed military events as a series of episodes that told a continuous story.

  • A domed ceiling linked the height and grandeur of the palace with the rule of the gods in the heavens.

  • Interior walls also served as exterior defensive walls.

What was the central theme of the teaching of Zoroaster? central plateau in the heart of the country—affect the region’s development?

  • The evil desires of humans can only be diminished, not eliminated.

  • Life was a constant battled between the opposing forces of good and evil.

  • Human life was insignificant in comparison to the glory of the gods.

  • Pain in this life was the result of human weakness.

Which of the following correctly characterizes the teachings of Zoroaster?

  • Humans were too morally weak to choose between good and evil and had to rely strictly on religious laws to guide their behavior.

  • At death, human existence ceased, and the soul converted into the spiritual matter that filled the universe.

  • Humans possessed freewill for good or evil and had to use their own conscience to guide them through life.

  • At death, the gods welcomed all humans into companionship with them in the heavenly city.

Answer Key for Chapter 2 of Zoroaster?

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

How did Greece’s geography affect its development? B.C.E.

  • Throughout Greece, broad fertile plains allowed for abundant agriculture, permitting the people to develop commerce and manufacturing.

  • Surrounded by water on three sides and mountains on the fourth, Greece’s natural defenses meant that the Greeks did not need to spend money on the military, but instead focused on philosophy and technology.

  • The numerous mountain ranges throughout Greece split up the land and encouraged political fragmentation, so that power resided in local city-states rather than in a unified kingdom.

  • The numerous large rivers in Greece facilitated trade and cultural interconnection throughout the Grecian countryside.

Which one of the following characterizes Mycenaean society?

  • The Mycenaean economy had an extensive division of labor controlled by the palace.

  • Mycenaean society was largely egalitarian, with city governors elected by the free vote of all male citizens.

  • The economic center of the kingdom was the village market, where the agricultural surplus was traded.

  • Mycenae outlawed slavery as a violation of the free will of each individual.

The political center of the polis, where shops, public buildings, and courts were located, was called the

  • acropolis.

  • agora

  • hoplite.

  • attica.

What was the fundamental effect of Pisistratus’s reign as tyrant in Athens?

  • Pisistratus supported the common people and promoted the growth of democratic ideals.

  • Pisistratus undermined the system of Athenian law by acting arbitrarily in his edicts.

  • Pisistratus reinforced the power of the aristocrats and their control over the poor laborers.

  • Pisistratus abolished the system of slavery and established the communal ownership of land.

How did the process of colonization affect the Greeks? tyrant in Athens?

  • The costs of colonization nearly bankrupted the city-states, forcing the Greeks to launch new wars to obtain tribute.

  • The polis had to assume far greater public functions in order to organize efforts to establish new colonies.

  • The distinctive features of Greek culture were overwhelmed by the cultures of the people they sought to colonize.

  • The requirements of colonization led to a series of technological innovations that made the Greek military the most powerful in the Western world.

Every four years the Athenians held their most important religious festival in which they processed to

  • the Erechtheum.

  • the Temple of Athena Nike.

  • the Parthenon.

  • the Propylaea.

How did the Megarian Decree seek to punish Megara? religious festival in which they processed to

  • Megarians were excluded from all trade with Athens and its empire.

  • Megarians were denied access to religious shrines on Athenian territory.

  • Megarians were denied entrance into the councils of the Delian League.

  • Megarians were excluded from the Olympic games.

What did Greek mystery cults offer their initiates? religious festival in which they processed to

  • The promise of life after death.

  • Healing waters believed to cure most illnesses .

  • Knowledge of the secrets of the gods .

  • Sexual freedom in mass orgies .

Which of the following statements religious festival in which they processed to best describes the meaning of the plays of Sophocles?

  • Humans should follow their own reason even if it violates public laws.

  • Humans should obey the will of the gods, even without fully understanding it.

  • Humans should obey the laws of the polis, even if they disagree with them.

  • Humans should follow their own consciences despite religious doctrine.

When did Greeks typically visit religious shrines and temples?

  • At weekly gatherings to worship particular deities .

  • When needed for private matters or as part of a procession .

  • When certain ritual moments required it, such as the birth of a child .

  • At extraordinary moments, such as when a war began.

Answer Key for Chapter 3 temples?

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

As Alexander launched his journey of conquest, who accompanied him in addition to the military?

  • Royal wives and concubines to ensure their faithfulness to Alexander

  • The sons of the kings of the Greek city-states to ensure their loyalty in Alexander’s absence

  • Philosophers, poets, and scientists to pursue an expedition of discovery

  • A group of Athenian merchants to guide Alexander when establishing economic policies in conquered territories

How was the Hellenic period different from the Hellenistic period?

  • The Hellenic period witnessed a growth of philosophy, science, and the arts, whereas all of these activities withered during the Hellenistic period.

  • The Hellenic period was marked by constant warfare, whereas the Hellenistic period was marked by a three decades of peace under Alexander’s rule.

  • The Hellenic period was marked by a strong foreign influence on Greek culture, whereas the Hellenistic period was marked by a rejection of non-Greek influences.

  • The Hellenic period was marked by similarities among those connected to Greek culture, whereas the Hellenistic period was marked by differences among those connected to Greek culture.

In order to promote political unity, to whom did the Hellenistic monarchs link themselves?

  • The gods

  • The common people

  • The nobility

  • The military leaders

Why did Hellenistic monarchs seek to make their states resemble the Greek polis?

  • They saw the Greek polis as the only acceptable model of society.

  • They sought to teach the local population the ideas of Greek political rights.

  • They wanted to encourage immigration by Greeks into their lands.

  • They were required by army generals to maintain all traditional Greek political rights.

The Seleucid dynasty adopted Hellenization most significantly because

  • the Seleucids undertook an active, organized promotion of Hellenization.

  • the Seleucids believed Greek culture and religion to be superior to all others.

  • the military required all local leaders to learn Greek.

  • their regions already had substantial commercial ties with Greece.

Why didn’t innovations in manufacturing technologies occur during the Hellenistic period?

  • Knowledge of machinery was not valued by the Greeks.

  • The Greek world honored philosophy but ignored more practical forms of knowledge.

  • Powerful labor guilds prevented the introduction of machinery that would reduce the employment of their members.

  • Human labor was so cheap and plentiful that there was little motivation to develop labor-saving devices.

What major advantage did the mystery religions have over the older Greek mystery cults?

  • The mystery religions promised eternal life.

  • The mystery religions were not tied to a particular location that required expensive pilgrimages.

  • The mystery religions did not require adherents to learn Greek.

  • The mystery religions required devotion and sustained contemplation, but did not require fees from its members, making it accessible to the poor.

Which one of the following older Greek mystery cults? best characterizes Jews in Hellenistic cities?

  • Jews adopted much of Hellenic culture but remained attached to the Jewish faith.

  • Jews isolated themselves from Greek influence both culturally and religiously.

  • Jews embraced both Greek culture and religion while also sustaining traditional Jewish religious ideals.

  • Jews often abandoned Jewish culture and religion for the intellectually superior Hellenic models.

Why was the city of Alexandria in Egypt an important intellectual center?

  • Alexandria hosted a meeting every ten years of the finest minds across the Hellenistic world.

  • Alexandria sponsored a competition for the finest book produced every year, with a substantial cash award if the winner would live in Alexandria.

  • Alexandria had a library with a massive collection of Greek texts.

  • Alexandria unified the knowledge of the Hellenistic world with knowledge developed in equatorial Africa.

How did the new military machinery affect warfare? intellectual center?

  • The effectiveness of new weapons made warfare less agonizing, as death came more quickly.

  • The new technologies undermined the power of generals and commanders, as strategies became simplified around machinery.

  • Warfare was no longer limited to the battlefield, but walled cities became the focus of sieges and attacks.

  • Foot soldiers no longer played an important role in warfare, as the technology allowed for victory or defeat at a distance.

Answer Key for Chapter 4 intellectual center?

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

Chapter 5: The Rise of Rome, ca. 750-31 B.C.E. intellectual center?

i>Clicker Questions

What achievement provided the foundation for Rome’s success?

  • Rome incorporated conquered people into the Roman system, extending to them the possibility of Roman citizenship.

  • Rome established an organizational and fiscal system that allowed armies to be raised on a massive scale beyond any previous Western society.

  • Rome unified a political and religious vision of society that found application in diverse cultures and widespread acceptance.

  • Rome provided such effective political and military protection that conquered people considered Roman rule an acceptable price for political stability.

How did the Etruscans organize themselves politically? success?

  • The Etruscans organized themselves as a military dictatorship.

  • The Etruscans organized themselves as a democracy for all citizens.

  • The Etruscans organized themselves as an oligarchy in which a noble ruling class held all authority.

  • The Etruscans organized themselves into a loose league of city-states.

Why did the senate gain prestige and power in the early republic of Rome?

  • The senate included simple artisans and laborers, giving it broad social representation.

  • The senate successfully undermined an ambitious general who had sought to assume dictatorial powers .

  • The senators established their own military troops to counter the power of the consuls .

  • The senators built experience and knowledge over the course of long service .

How did the political power of the plebeians change during the course of the early Roman republic?

  • The plebeians lost power as the traditions of the city-state gave way to the traditions of the republic.

  • The plebeians gained power because their success in the military made them a greater threat to the senate.

  • Plebeians won the right to meet in their own assembly, and their ordinances were recognized as binding on the entire population.

  • The plebeians lost authority because their frequent absences with the military prevented them from sustaining political influence in Rome itself.

How did the Roman conquests develop? the course of the early Roman republic?

  • The Romans followed a plan to dominate the Mediterranean set out by Pyrrus in the third century B.C.E.

  • The Romans separated the Mediterranean into two zones, with two armies competing to see which could achieve domination most quickly.

  • The Romans responded to situations as they arose, without any grand plan or strategy.

  • The Romans stumbled into power when their rivals the Carthaginians unexpectedly collapsed due to plague.

The the course of the early Roman republic? pax Romana refers to

  • the Roman peace established by adapting Roman institutions and ideals to the new world empire.

  • the Roman peace established by the dominating force of the Roman army.

  • the Roman peace established by forcing Roman culture on subject peoples.

  • the Roman peace achieved as the empire embraced Christianity.

How did Roman conquests affect Roman society? the course of the early Roman republic?

  • Roman society became more stressful, since numerous administrative responsibilities emerged to manage the new empire.

  • Roman society became more culturally exclusive as Romans sought to reinforce traditional culture.

  • Roman society became less sophisticated as clear cultural and social boundaries were needed to maintain stability.

  • Romans society became more fast-paced and less formal as leisure became a more common pursuit.

What native artistic tradition did Roman artists sustain despite influences from Greece?

  • Life-sized statues

  • Frescos depicting military victories

  • Realistic portraiture

  • Tiled mosaics

Why was Cleopatra hated by the Roman people when she came to Rome with Julius Caesar?

  • Cleopatra was viewed as a traitor for having betrayed Pompey.

  • Cleopatra was viewed as a symbol of the immoral East and a threat to traditional Roman values.

  • The Romans viewed any woman who held political authority as a violation of the natural order.

  • The Romans viewed anything associated with Egypt as a threat to Roman superiority.

Why did the senate make a mistake in refusing to grant land to veterans?

  • Veterans claimed unused lands as their own and organized an independent military.

  • Legionnaires returned to the provinces and continued military expansion beyond what the empire could sustain.

  • Legionnaires turned to commanders, as opposed to the senate, to protect their interests.

  • Veterans drafted the gladiators into the army to undermine the senate’s authority.

Answer Key for Chapter 5 to veterans?

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

Chapter 6: The Pax Romana, 31 B.C.E.-284 C.E. to veterans?

i>Clicker Questions

The Augustan settlement included all of the following to veterans? except

  • the emperor held all executive power.

  • the senate served as a prestigious advisory body.

  • religious differences.

  • the law courts served as a restraint on the emperor’s exercise of authority.

How did Augustus reform the Roman army? to veterans?

  • He turned the army into a permanent professional force with standard training.

  • He instituted a draft of Roman men to establish service in the army as a condition of citizenship.

  • He instituted a system of clientage so that the officers were judged principally on their loyalty to Augustus.

  • Legionnaires were given permanent assignments in specific locations so that they could build relationships with local peoples.

How did the historian Livy seek to support the reforms of Augustus?

  • Livy praised military life and service to the Roman army as the highest virtue a citizen could obtain.

  • Livy praised the greatness of the republic and Augustus’s efforts to restore it.

  • Livy praised Augustus’s effort to established authoritarian rule as necessary in response to rampant political corruption.

  • Livy praised the idea of empire and Augustus’s effort to establish an imperial system of rule.

What form did same-sex relationships between men typically take in the Augustan era?

  • Same-sex relationships were formalized unions under Roman law that required the parties to be economically responsible for each other.

  • Same-sex relationships occurred only covertly and were subject to widespread persecution.

  • Same-sex relationships became central to military recruitment, since men were often away from their families for many years.

  • Same-sex relationships copied the Greek model of relationships between older and younger men or between men of unequal social states.

How did authorities distinguish between citizens and noncitizens in Rome?

  • Citizens received free grain for bread, oil, and wine, while noncitizens could purchase grain at low prices.

  • Citizens were not subject to military service, while noncitizens could be forced into the army.

  • Citizens were tried in special citizen-courts, while noncitizens had fewer rights in common courts.

  • Citizens could not be arrested by city police, while noncitizens were regularly harassed by the city police.

How was daily life in the provinces of Asia Minor different from daily life in northern Europe?

  • Asia Minor was a more urban and Romanized environment than northern Europe.

  • Asia Minor was a region of deep poverty due to its poor agriculture, and failed to form significant cities in comparison to northern Europe.

  • Asia Minor became the center of gladiatorial games, which the northern Europeans rejected as inhumane.

  • Asia Minor lacked natural resources for manufacturing, so remained economically backward in comparison with northern Europe.

What was the central belief of Jewish militant apocalypticism in the first century C.E.?

  • The world would soon be destroyed, and the Jews transported to heaven.

  • The world would soon adopt the Jewish religion and turn to the Jews for religious and political leadership.

  • A messiah would soon arrive who would be appointed Roman emperor and relieve the Jews of their suffering.

  • A messiah would soon arrive who would destroy the Roman legions and inaugurate a period of happiness and plenty for the Jews.

For the earliest Christians, what did the belief in Jesus’ resurrection signify?

  • Jews would be victorious over all who opposed them, especially the Romans.

  • Christians would enjoy the protection of an immortal who would ensure them prosperity and security.

  • Jesus had triumphed over death, and all Christians would enjoy immortality.

  • Roman political authority would soon crumble, for they had lost control over life and death.

How was farming life threatened in the third century C.E.? resurrection signify?

  • A sustained period of draught ruined many farm families and their lands.

  • Large estate owners seized the land of local farmers and forced them to relocate to less productive lands.

  • Renegade soldiers and corrupt imperial officials preyed on local people, causing some farmers to flee their land.

  • Lands farmed for many decades decreased in fertility, causing farm families to abandon their fields and move to urban environments.

How did the Christian thinker Justin Martyr seek to reconcile pagan culture with Christianity?

  • He argued that Christianity emerged out of the mystery religions that had emphasized the idea of immortality.

  • He asserted that pagan culture was so obviously in error that pagans would quickly accept Christianity when the truth was revealed to them.

  • He promoted a fusion between pagan and Christian rituals by having Christians adopt pagan holidays as their own.

  • He believed that pagan philosophers foreshadowed Christianity and sought to identify similarities between their ideas and those of Christians.

Answer Key for Chapter 6 reconcile pagan culture with Christianity?

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

Chapter 7: Late Antiquity, 250-600 reconcile pagan culture with Christianity?

i>Clicker Questions

How did Diocletian and Constantine emphasize the exalted position of the emperor as the “elect of god”?

  • They had all of their imperial edicts and laws endorsed by religious officials.

  • They held coronation ceremonies in which Roman priests blessed their reigns.

  • They adopted the court ceremonies and trappings of the Persian Empire.

  • They had religious shrines and temples built in their honor.

How did the growing raids from barbarians affect the local relationships between landlords and small landholders?

  • Because landlords needed the local farmer laborers to devise security forces against the barbarians, laborers were able to demand land and more freedoms from the landlords.

  • For protection and security from barbarian raids, small landholders gave over their land to landlords and became tenant farmers bound to the land.

  • In order to ward off barbarian raids, landlords increasingly sold small landholders into slavery to barbarian chiefs.

  • In order to ward off barbarian raids, small landholders increasingly rebelled against landlords and turned their land over to barbarian chiefs as a form of tribute.

Why did Christians have great respect for monks? relationships between landlords and small landholders?

  • Christians believed that monks could speak to God and that their prayers had special influence.

  • Christians believed that monks were a living incarnation of God’s spirit.

  • Christians believed that monks channeled the spirit of God for humans.

  • Christians believed that monks had full access to God’s holiness.

How did the Benedictines assist local and royal governments?

  • The Benedictines provided governments with substantial financial resources through their payment of taxes.

  • The Benedictines educated some local young people who went on to serve as able administrators for governments.

  • The Benedictines served as local police forces that kept local populations under surveillance.

  • The Benedictines established “information networks” by which they collected information on the activities of local landholders and informed princes and kings.

Runic inscriptions provide information about barbarian societies from what regions?

  • Spain and southern France .

  • Scandinavia and the British Isles .

  • The Black Sea .

  • Eastern Europe and western Russia .

During the third and fourth centuries, how were barbarian war bands transformed?

  • War bands were slowly disbanded as they threatened the growing authority of the tribal chief.

  • War bands were increasingly turned into groups of dependant soldiers under the authority of the tribal chief and were dependent on him for their upkeep.

  • War bands were increasingly stratified according to hierarchical ranks, with land and wealth being accumulated by the most elite.

  • War bands seized control of tribal governance and displaced the power of the tribal chief with that of a tribal council.

How did the Romans respond when crop failures and famine affected their Visigoth allies?

  • The Romans provided food supplies in exchange for promises to attack the Huns.

  • The Romans provided food supplies so that they could demonstrate their goodwill and effective administration to barbarian peoples.

  • The Romans forced the Visigoth to sell their own people into slavery in exchange for dog flesh.

  • The Romans refused to provide food in order to destroy the Visigoths as a potential threat.

The Visigothic state in southern France and Spain was overthrown by

  • the last vestiges of the Roman army.

  • Hunnic forces seeking new agricultural lands.

  • expanding Muslim forces.

  • Frankish forces unified under the Merovingian kinds.

How did the practice of confessions change from early Christianity to the fifth century?

  • Confession changed from being a recounting of God’s blessings to being a recounting of one’s sins.

  • Confession changed from being a voluntary act to being a required part of the sacraments.

  • Confession changed from a time of agony and despair to a moment of joyous celebration.

  • Confession changed from a public ritual to a private one between the believer and the parish priest.

What did the Law Code of Justinian accomplish? Christianity to the fifth century?

  • The Law Code of Justinian invented the new category of civil law.

  • The Law Code of Justinian was supplanted by Church canon law in the seventh century.

  • The Law Code of Justinian codified Roman legal thought.

  • The Law Code of Justinian clarified the Roman law and eliminated outmoded laws and contradictions.

Answer Key for Chapter 7 Christianity to the fifth century?

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is D.

The Bedouins and urbanized Arabs of the sixth century shared what common characteristic?

  • A similar social structure built around egalitarian values

  • United loyalty to the royal family

  • A rejection of trade and commerce as corrupting to community morals

  • A respect of each other’s customs, including the observance of family obligations

What is the essential element in the Islamic idea of jihad? what common characteristic?

  • To seek to destroy the infidels and all those who impede Islamic authority

  • To cultivate serenity and peace through study of God’s word

  • To strive or struggle to lead a virtuous life and spread God’s rule and law

  • To pursue a mystical understanding of God through asceticism and self-denial

Which one of the following does what common characteristic? not correctly characterize the Moorish city of Córdoba?

  • The population was over 2 million people.

  • The streets were well-lighted and paved.

  • There was an abundance of fresh water for drinking and bathing.

  • The city had a vast library of some 400,000 books.

Islamic scholars made important advancements in which two fields of study?

  • Astronomy and physics

  • Chemistry and pharmacology

  • Mathematics and medicine

  • The theories of motion and of matter

How did Charlemagne justify his long battles in Germany? fields of study?

  • He believed only a secure border in the Germanic lands could prevent future barbarian invasions from central Asia.

  • He needed booty and loot to fund the building of Christian churches and monasteries.

  • Germanic tribes had attacked Byzantium, and he was helping to defend a fellow Christian.

  • He was spreading Christianity to pagan peoples.

In the Carolingian Renaissance, what was the main purpose of the revival of learning?

  • To create a class of literate officeholders and jurists who could aid the emperor in managing his kingdom

  • To promote an understanding of Christian scriptures and instruct people to pray and praise God correctly

  • To transform the emperor’s primary advisors and their families from warriors into a noble class able to control their own domains

  • To reclaim the Roman system of law

Which of the following concerning Viking boats is the revival of learning? not true?

  • The boats held between forty and sixty men.

  • The boats were propelled by a unique mechanism called a stern post rudder.

  • The boats moved swiftly to allow Vikings to strike, plunder, and flee.

  • The boats could navigate complicated rivers and estuaries.

What did the Frankish king Charles the Simple give the Vikings to buy them off during an invasion?

  • Normandy

  • The ampoules of oil used in the coronation ceremony

  • 25 chests of gold

  • His three daughters as brides

Which of the following was Vikings to buy them off during an invasion? not a common practice of manorialism?

  • A peasant had to give the lord a percentage of the annual harvest.

  • A peasant had to pay a fee to the lord at the birth of each child.

  • A peasant had to pay a fee to marry someone from another lord’s estate.

  • A peasant had to pay a fee to the lord in order to inherit property.

The transition from free laborers to serfdom was accelerated by

  • the collapse of central royal authority.

  • a long era of droughts.

  • the Viking assaults.

  • the Roman church’s effort to consolidate its landholdings.

Answer Key for Chapter 8 by

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

How did William the Conqueror transform the feudal system in England?

  • He limited the power of nobles, transforming the feudal system into a unified monarchy.

  • He replaced the sheriffs with justices of the peace who were directly responsible to the crown.

  • He expanded the authority of church officials so that they could protect the peasantry from abusive nobles.

  • He reinforced the power of nobles by providing men-in-arms to support them in their conflicts with village leaders and unruly peasants.

What fundamental principle did the French crown seek to establish in appointing royal agents in the provinces?

  • Royal agents should establish their effective authority by building alliances with provincial leaders, which will permit them to influence local politics.

  • Royal agents should seek to destroy forms of local power and replace that power with the central state.

  • Royal agents should gain their power from the crown and not from their own wealth or local connections.

  • Royal agents should create their own salaries and sources of wealth from their alliances in the province that they oversee in order to demonstrate to local officials their effectiveness.

How did Roger de Hauterville create political innovations after he captured Sicily?

  • He overthrew all political practices and institutions on the island and sought to build a new, rational government from scratch.

  • He modeled his political reforms directly on the traditions of Ancient Rome and reestablished a senate and an imperial system

  • He fused Arabic and Greek political forms in financial management with Norman practices related to landholding and royal inquests.

  • He modeled his political reforms on the Greek city-states and reestablished a polis with a ruling, democratically elected council.

Why did Frederick II found the University of Naples? after he captured Sicily?

  • To prepare missionaries to convert Muslims during the Crusades

  • To train officials for his bureaucracy

  • To promote the study of the liberal arts

  • To develop knowledge about medicine and astronomy

How were popes selected in the tenth century? after he captured Sicily?

  • Popes were chosen by wealthy Roman families from among their members.

  • Popes were appointed by the predecessors.

  • Popes were elected by the College of Cardinals.

  • Popes were selected by the bishops from among the cardinals.

How did the investiture controversy affect political power in the German-speaking lands?

  • The emperor’s political power was enhanced as he gained control over church officials and the revenues produced on their lands.

  • The German high aristocracy enhanced their authority over peasants and knights and held the balance of power in Germany.

  • The pope’s political power was enhanced as he gained control over the church officials and lands in Germany and demonstrated the papacy’s superiority to an earthly ruler.

  • The merchant classes gained considerable authority in their independent cities as they negotiated the pope and emperor against each other.

How did the Crusaders organize the territory they conquered in the First Crusade?

  • They placed the territories directly under papal authority.

  • They established four small crusader states and built castles and fortified towns.

  • The territories were established as tributary states under the French king.

  • The territories were maintained as Muslim dependencies under the protection of Saladin.

In the Fourth Crusade, whom did the Crusaders attack? in the First Crusade?

  • Jerusalem

  • Constantinople

  • Mecca

  • Alexandria

Why did German emperor Otto I establish a string of dioceses along his northern and eastern borders?

  • He sought to demonstrate the advantages of Christianity to pagan peoples.

  • He wanted the church’s support in expanding his territory.

  • He hoped Christianity would pacify newly conquered Slavs.

  • He wanted to create a buffer people between Christian Germans and pagan Slavs.

Why was Christianity slow to progress in Sweden and Finland?

  • Pagan religious leaders resisted Christianity.

  • Church officials were distracted by the Crusades.

  • The local nobility identified no advantages to adopting Christianity.

  • Royal power was weak.

Answer Key for Chapter 9

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

Which of the following is 1000-1300not a category within the popular image of society in the High Middle Ages?

  • Those who pray

  • Those who rule

  • Those who fight

  • Those who work

How did the advent of the money economy affect the status of the serfs?

  • Many serfs saved money and used it to buy their freedom.

  • Lords were able to purchase larger numbers of serfs.

  • With greater access to money, noblemen drove small farmers out of business and forced them into serfdom.

  • Serfs found their money consistently devalued by inflation, limiting their ability to build up cash reserves.

How did the productivity of agricultural communities improve in the tenth and eleventh centuries?

  • Reduced warfare permitted more stable agriculture development.

  • Increased taxes required communities to bring more land into cultivation.

  • Knowledge from the Near East about methods for water irrigation helped to solve the problem of drought.

  • Several new mechanisms such as the wind and water mill replaced or aided human labor.

Which of the following does in the tenth and eleventh centuries? not correctly characterize medical care during the twelfth century?

  • Barber-surgeons offered help to individuals suffering from wounds and broken bones.

  • Physicians displaced midwives as the primary deliverers of new born children.

  • Apothecaries aided people with internal ailments with mixtures of herbs, salts metals and other ingredients.

  • Untrained traditional healers learned healing techniques from parents or older people.

What tensions existed between the church and the people over saints?

  • People often venerated saints not authorized by the church.

  • The church discouraged the veneration of saints because it drew focus away from Christ.

  • People resisted the veneration of saints because of the expense involved.

  • The church frequently created new saints, creating confusion among the people.

How did the sacramental system affect the role of priests? saints?

  • The sacramental system enhanced the authority of priests over people’s lives.

  • The sacramental system removed authority from priests and gave it to the actions of the individual believer.

  • The sacramental system undermined the priest’s role as the mediator with God.

  • The sacramental system gave priest direct authority to declare an individual excommunicated.

Which one of the following saints? best characterizes the chivalric ideal?

  • Loyalty and honor were the most important qualities of a noble.

  • Grace and mercy were ridiculed as feminine qualities.

  • Intelligence and generousness were identified as signs of weakness.

  • Military skill was recognized as the highest virtue.

Where did noble girls receive experience as servants or ladies in waiting?

  • In their own homes

  • In convent schools

  • In local charitable institutions

  • In the homes of relatives or high nobles

How did abbeys parallel the larger society? ladies in waiting?

  • The large majority of members were from poor families.

  • All authority rested in the hands of the abbot, who had absolute authority.

  • Abbeys generally divided work by class, so that members from peasant families did the manual labor.

  • The poorer monks were required to perform most of the religious and spiritual services.

Which of the following best characterizes the membership of convents?

  • Poor women were forbidden from monastic life.

  • Nobles established convents for female family members that only accepted women of similar class.

  • Convents were generally filled with individuals abandoned by their families and lacking economic resources.

  • Convents generally held a broad mix of social classes, mirroring the outside world.

Answer Key for Chapter 10 convents?

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

Chapter 11: The Creativity and Challenges of Medieval Cities, 1100-1300

i>Clicker Questions

Which of the following was Cities, 1100-1300not the typical origin of a medieval town?

  • Towns emerged around former religious sites of pre-Christian cultures.

  • Towns began as fortifications built in response to Viking invasions.

  • Towns grew up around great cathedrals and monasteries that drew in potential customers.

  • Towns developed from the sites of earlier Roman encampments.

What role did the leaders of the merchant guild hold in most towns?

  • They were deeply distrusted because of prejudice about the moral reliability of individuals who profited from trade.

  • They directed one of several guilds in the town, but the other guilds had significant ability to limit the merchant guild’s power by refusing to sell them the wares the other guilds produced.

  • They were viewed as the most moral leaders in the town because their wealth freed them from the daily toil of work.

  • They formed an oligarchy, controlling economic life and negotiating with kings and lords for political independence.

The Hanseatic League was towns?

  • a commercial enterprise that specialized in commodities from the Iberian peninsula.

  • a trade association of up to two hundred towns in northern Europe with exclusive trading rights.

  • a monopoly established among Italian trading cities for trade with the East.

  • an organization of monasteries that used their economic privileges to expand trade among their territories.

How did rulers respond to the growing wealth of merchants? towns?

  • Rulers sought to tax this wealth to support more centralized states.

  • Rulers sought to shore up the position of the nobility by banning merchants from political activity.

  • Rulers encouraged the nobility to take trade over from the merchants.

  • Rulers encouraged the church to condemn merchant wealth as immoral.

Why did lords of the manor limit the education of peasants? towns?

  • The cost of educating peasants rarely repaid in increased productivity.

  • Uneducated peasants were less likely to rebel.

  • The availability of education was too scarce for lords to pursue hiring a teacher.

  • Those with education tended leave the manor and obtain work in the church or trades.

How did Peter Abelard’s scholarship differ from most of his colleagues?

  • Abelard embraced the writings of pre-Christian philosophers, believing they still revealed Christian truths.

  • Abelard discussed and analyzed theological principles rather than merely asserting them.

  • Abelard questioned the inerrancy of scripture in his effort to accommodate the Bible to knowledge about the workings of nature.

  • Abelard employed Jewish and Islamic scholarship in order to interpret Christian doctrine.

What themes infused the poems and songs of the troubadours? his colleagues?

  • Stories of revenge, slaughter, and physical power

  • Narratives of saints’ lives and martyrdom

  • Accounts of the Crusades and Christian virtue

  • Tales of loves, desire, and gallantry

What was the central innovation of Gothic architecture? his colleagues?

  • Barrel-vaulted roofs that allowed in more exterior light

  • Basilican-style cathedrals in the shape of a cross

  • The construction of burial crypts beneath cathedrals

  • Stone ribbed–roofs filled with plaster that were much lighter in weight

How did the urban environment affect the Dominican and Franciscan orders?

  • They only accepted members who were from a merchant family background.

  • They preferred that their members be university graduates able to communicate with an urban population.

  • They placed considerable effort into managing their lands and property to demonstrate to the urban merchant class the economic value of their spirituality.

  • They ignored the poor in order to gain political and economic support from the urban elites.

How did the new orders of Dominicans and Franciscans differ from the Benedictine tradition?

  • The Dominicans and Franciscans adopted vows (silence for Dominicans and self-mortification for the Franciscans) that made it difficult for them to interact with the broader population.

  • The Dominicans and Franciscans emphasized mystical spiritual devotion over scholarly theological pursuits.

  • The Dominicans and Franciscans were friars, not monks, and sought to engage with ordinary Christians rather than secluding themselves.

  • The Dominicans and Franciscans refused to participate in the Inquisition for it violated their sense of brotherly love.

Answer Key for Chapter 11 from the Benedictine tradition?

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

Chapter 12: The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages, 1300-1450 from the Benedictine tradition?

i>Clicker Questions

Why did storms and poor weather directly affect local populations in the High Middle Ages?

  • Communities refused to build stockpiled reserves of food for fear that the food would waste.

  • Poor weather disrupted the long-distance networks that brought grains to warm climates and livestock products to colder climates.

  • Storms and poor weather had little affect on local populations, as food supplies were drawn from a wide network of markets.

  • Most urban areas depended on food within one day’s travel, and transportation of food was expensive.

In addition to fleas, how else was the plague typically spread in the fourteenth century?

  • Through sexual contact

  • Through infected and spoiled food

  • From one person to another by coughing and sneezing

  • By priests distributing the Eucharist

How was the economic position of laborers affected by the plague?

  • Depression followed the plague, resulting in stagnant wages and chronic underemployment.

  • Land was consolidated in the hands of the nobility, leaving peasants more subject to their lords’ demands.

  • Trade collapsed, resulting in mass unemployment in cities and a return to the countryside for the poor.

  • Labor shortages resulted in a high standard of living for the broad mass of people.

Why did some French nobles side with the English in the 100 Years’ War?

  • The English king promised them more lands and reduced taxes.

  • They believed Edward III had been illegally denied the throne.

  • The English king had demonstrated superior military ability, and the nobles wished to side with the victorious party.

  • They sought to thwart the efforts of the French monarchy to centralize political authority.

How did the English Parliament expand its authority during the course of the 100 Years’ War?

  • The King signed legislation requiring that all nonfeudal taxes must have approval by Parliament.

  • The King recognized the right of Parliament to meet every year in order to discuss the business of the central government.

  • The Parliament claimed the right to authorize or forbid the use of the army outside of England.

  • The Parliament claimed the right to recall a king who violated the fundamental laws of the realm.

How did the Lollards challenge traditional gender roles? the course of the 100 Years’ War?

  • The Lollards permitted women to own land.

  • The Lollards required that men share domestic duties with their wives, especially the education of children.

  • The Lollards allowed women to preach.

  • The Lollards required women to receive equal educations to men.

How did the guild structure change in some fourteenth-century manufacturing?

  • Guilds gained dominating control over production so that independent craftsmen or peasant laborers were driven out of business.

  • The guild system was large overthrown as the large pool of laborers in the cities could be hired cheaply, placing greater control in the hands of merchants.

  • The guilds shifted from largely economic organizations to political ones as merchants and workers discovered their ability to influence town leaders through corporate pressure.

  • Greater divisions emerged among guild masters as production became more specialized, with some masters becoming wealthy employers and others more dependant laborers.

The late age of marriage in northern and western Europe resulted in

  • The consolidation of land holdings as fewer children were born to couples.

  • More children surviving childhood as they entered into more stable, prosperous families.

  • Wives becoming more dependant on their husbands and mothers-in-law.

  • A steady market in sexual services, with cities establishing legal houses of prostitution.

How does Chaucer’s resulted in Canterbury Tales reflect the cultural tensions of the fourteenth century?

  • The characters in the story are noble by birth but act in ways stereotypically identified with ignorant peasants.

  • The characters in the story are peasants but behave in a manner exhibiting nobility, intellect, and honor.

  • The characters in the story are Christian by faith but more prominently materialistic, sensual, and worldly.

  • The characters in the story reject the Christian faith but embrace its ideals of love and virtue.

Why did literacy spread in the fourteenth century? resulted in

  • As a result of the revival of Roman law and the legal tradition

  • As a result of the growing need for literacy in commerce, craft production, and politics

  • As a result of the development of a school system within the church

  • As a result of the call for religious reform, which required individuals to critique the church

Answer Key for Chapter 12 resulted in

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

What did Giorgio Vasari mean by using the word 1350-1550renaissance?

  • The limitations of the ancient and medieval word are being overthrown by men of great intellect.

  • The true teachings of Christianity are finding pure expression as humanity is moving out of the darkness of sin.

  • The vitality of the barbarian era is being reinvigorated by the adventurous spirit of a new age.

  • After centuries of darkness, the glory of the classical past is being reborn in the work of rare men of genius.

How did the nobility in northern Italy respond to the growth of power and wealth among the urban merchant guilds?

  • The nobility sponsored literary and artistic work on Roman history, emphasizing the role of patrician estate owners as the key to Roman power.

  • The nobility moved to the cities and married into the rich commercial families.

  • The nobility emphasized uniquely noble privileges as markers of honor and status.

  • The nobility claimed all of the leading political offices in the cities as noble offices.

How did the Renaissance writers interpret Julius Caesar’s role in Roman history?

  • Julius Caesar’s role in transforming Rome from a republic to an empire marked the beginning of Rome’s decline.

  • Julius Caesar’s decision to cross the Rubicon and seize Rome serves as the central moment of Rome’s daring to achieve greatness.

  • Julius Caesar’s embrace of Cleopatra marked the synthesis of West and East, with Western dominance assured.

  • Julius Caesar’s murder serves as the moment when humans, rather than God, can be understood as the driving force in history.

What did humanists understand as the goal of a humanist education?

  • A contemplative life focused on the ideal forms of human action

  • The development of the soul so that the individual could lead with moral clarity

  • The pursuit of individual artistic greatness that expresses a unique vision

  • A life active in the world that benefited the public good

What was the essence of Desiderius Erasmus’s thought? education?

  • The life of the mind separates us from the animals.

  • Christianity is an inner attitude of the heart adopting the life of Christ.

  • Classical writers expose spiritual truth freed from the confusions of theologians.

  • The civic responsibilities of the educated man are his central obligation in life.

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, how did art in northern Europe differ from art in Italy?

  • Northern art was more pastoral, depicting peasant communities.

  • Northern art was more religious in orientation.

  • Northern art was more innovative in technique, developing the idea of perspective.

  • Northern art relied more on themes and stories drawn from classical literature.

What general attitudes did Europeans have toward Africa? northern Europe differ from art in Italy?

  • Africa was a land of great wealth and power that served as a potential threat to European expansion.

  • Africa was the fount of civilization as the fabled location of the Garden of Eden.

  • Africa was a remote place isolated by heresy and Islam from the superior European population.

  • Africa was largely devoid of people, a nearly barren land.

How did the hierarchy of wealth differ from the hierarchy of orders?

  • The hierarchy of wealth allowed more change than the hierarchy of status as families’ wealth increased and decreased.

  • The hierarchy of wealth allowed the wealthy to create closed oligarchies in which they could monopolize all meaningful sources of wealth creation.

  • The hierarchy of wealth created unstable societies as traditional status no longer carried social significance.

  • The hierarchy of wealthy fractured traditional political forms such as patronage and family alliances.

How did the French monarchy and the papacy resolve the conflict over the appointment of church officials?

  • The papacy reserved the right to appoint officials, and the king gained control over the revenues of church lands.

  • The papacy received the first year’s income of new bishops and abbots, and the king had the right to select bishops and abbots.

  • The papacy gained authority over the appointment of officials, but the independent church courts and military had to be eliminated.

  • The papacy gained revenue rights over church lands but forfeited the right to enforce the Inquisition in France.

In reorganizing his royal power, to whom did Charles VII of France give more influence?

  • The high nobility

  • The clergy

  • Lawyers and bankers

  • Military commanders

Answer Key for Chapter 13 France give more influence?

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

Chapter 14: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500-1600 France give more influence?

i>Clicker Questions

In the early sixteenth century, men and women demonstrated their religious piety through all of the following means except

  • village processions honoring local saints.

  • donations made to churches and religious orders in wills.

  • strong support for the church and clergy.

  • pilgrimages made to shrines.

What new understanding of salvation did Martin Luther propose?

  • Salvation was achieved through godly submission to spiritual authorities.

  • Salvation came through faithful performance of the sacraments and charitable works.

  • Salvation was achieved by living a moral life in accordance with Biblical teachings of good and evil.

  • Salvation came through faith as a free gift of God without human effort.

How did humanists respond to the Lutheran reform movement? propose?

  • Most humanists rejected the Lutheran assertion that the writings of the church fathers and medieval theologians did not carry spiritual authority

  • Many humanists were attracted to its simpler, personal faith that emphasized reading and reflecting on the scriptures.

  • Many humanists were attracted to the unified and coherent body of doctrine that Protestantism represented.

  • Most humanists rejected the challenge to learned, scholarly opinion built into the idea of the priesthood of all believers.

How did Luther justify his rejection of the peasants in the Peasants’ War?

  • Luther believed freedom meant independence from the authority of the Roman church, not authority from legitimate secular power.

  • Luther asserted that the peasants were seeking to reestablish Catholicism throughout Germany.

  • Luther claimed that the Bible forbids Christians to ever rebel against or challenge royal or noble authority.

  • Luther fully justified the peasant rebellion but asserted that as a spiritual leader he should not speak out on a secular issue.

Why did Henry VIII believe that God was displeased with his marriage to Catherine of Aragon?

  • Henry had married Catherine in order to secure a political alliance but had not had sexual relations with her and rarely saw her.

  • Henry believed that the Islamic heritage in Spain had made the Spanish displeasing to God and therefore his marriage to a Spaniard was incurring God’s wrath.

  • Henry believed that Catherine’s failure to produce any children was evidence that she had brought Spanish lovers with her from Spain.

  • Catherine had been married to Henry’s older brother who died, and marriage to a brother’s widow violated canon law.

How did Henry VIII dispose of lands seized from the church? marriage to Catherine of Aragon?

  • He distributed the land among the poor in order to prevent peasant revolts against his religious reforms.

  • He used the lands to found hospitals and poorhouses to replaced the now defunct Catholic charitable institutions.

  • He gave the land to the new Church of England in order to win over the loyalty of the clergy.

  • He distributed land to the upper classes, tying them both to the Tudor dynasty and the new Protestant church.

How do many historians understand the developments within the Catholic Church after the Reformation as two movements?

  • As an internal reform movement tied to earlier reform efforts and as a movement that opposed Protestantism.

  • As a reform movement to expand church authority over political authority and as a movement opposed to Protestantism

  • As a reform movement to improve management of church lands and as a movement to expand church authority over political authority

  • As an internal reform movement and as a movement to expand church authority over political authority

What was the goal of the French at the Council of Trent? the Catholic Church after the Reformation as two movements?

  • The French wanted to establish clear guidelines for witchcraft trials.

  • The French wanted to reclaim control of the territories of Alsace and Lorraine.

  • The French wanted to limit papal authority over church properties in France.

  • The French wanted Catholics and Lutherans to remain divided to keep German lands decentralized.

Why did inquisitions often the Catholic Church after the Reformation as two movements? not lead to the executions of accused witches?

  • Local populations came to the protection of those accused of witchcraft, vouching for their devotion to Christianity.

  • The required standards of proof were significantly high so that rarely could guilt be legally established.

  • Inquisitors doubted that most people made pacts with the devil and instead believed peasants to be superstitious and ignorant.

  • Most accused witches admitted to witchcraft, proving the devil’s spell was broken.

Why were witch panics most common in small territorial states?

  • Individuals were much more intimately connected in small states, permitting panics to spread more thoroughly in the society.

  • Rulers in small territories felt threatened and saw the persecution of witches as a way to demonstrate their piety and concern for order.

  • Both Catholic and Protestant officials usually held greater authority in territorial states and implemented religious investigations more severely.

  • Small territorial states had more developed political systems, including more effective law systems.

Answer Key for Chapter 14 states?

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

From what did the European voyages of discovery derive? states?

  • The desire to spread Christianity to people who had not heard the Christian message

  • The thrill of discovery and of exploring unknown regions

  • The desire to share in and control the wealth coming from the Indian Ocean trade

  • The intent to reclaim the Holy Lands from the Muslim Turks

How did the Ottoman expansion affect European trade? states?

  • It led Europeans to seek new trade routes to Asia.

  • It substantially expanded European trade with the East by providing more secure trade corridors.

  • It crippled European trade with the East as the Islamic Ottomans sought to use their position to economically destroy Christian Europe.

  • It undermined the importance of the Italian city-state in European trade.

What role did Prince Henry play in European expansion? states?

  • He led three key expeditions to Africa, seizing control of the city of Ceuta in Morocco as a launching point for future expeditions.

  • He served as liaison between the explorers and the papacy to ensure the papacy that the explorers sought to spread Christianity.

  • He coordinated French, English, and Portuguese efforts at exploration in order to share the expenses.

  • He supported the study of geography and navigation and sponsored expeditions down the coast of Africa.

What relationship did Vasco da Gama forge with the Indians in Calicut?

  • He established a trade alliance that included a neutral council to resolve trade disputes.

  • He angered the Muslim merchants with his arrogance and failed to forge any trading alliances.

  • He established a Portuguese colony on the Indian coast and agreed to pay local leaders a 12% tax on all goods sold.

  • He forged a trade monopoly with the Indian emperor that gave Portugal exclusive rights to trade with Europe.

Why did fierce competition emerge over fishing for cod in the waters off Newfoundland?

  • Control of the cod trade would provide economic support for colonial development.

  • The schools of cod served as insurance against starvation and famine in Europe.

  • Catholic prohibition of eating meat on Fridays and during Lent created a thriving market for fish.

  • Cod was considered an aphrodisiac and in high demand in Europe.

How role did the intendants serve in Spanish America? the waters off Newfoundland?

  • The intendants served as the viceroy’s local advisors and ensured that the viceroy’s decrees were enacted.

  • The intendants held broad administrative, military, and judicial powers and reported directly to the monarchy.

  • The intendants served as the Spanish settlers’ representatives to the monarchy to ensure that their views were heard.

  • The intendants were responsible for protecting the interests of the Catholic Church both with regard to the church’s lands and its missionary efforts.

What crop did the Spanish establish over their entire domain in the Americas?

  • Corn

  • Grapes

  • Olives

  • Wheat

Why did Spain’s productive capacity decline during its golden age?

  • The Spanish economy could not meet the demand for goods, leading to widespread inflation, which increased production costs.

  • The Americas supplied so many manufactured goods to Spain that Spain itself did not need to manufacture products.

  • With the wealth from the Americas, many people were able to stop working, causing production to diminish.

  • Spain focused its activities on spreading Christianity through warfare in Europe and through missionaries in its colonies.

Michel de Montaigne made use of the tradition of skepticism, which emphasized

  • doubt that total certainty or definitive knowledge can be obtained.

  • the failure of human senses to understand the spiritual realm.

  • the inadequacy of political leaders to achieve moral goals.

  • the success of atheists in disproving the existence of god.

William Shakespeare’s which emphasized Othello seems to echo

  • the large religious wars on continental Europe in the sixteenth century.

  • the witch hunts of the sixteenth century.

  • the efforts of Renaissance kings to centralize political authority.

  • the problems of imperial conquest and settlement in the sixteenth century.

Answer Key for Chapter 15 which emphasized

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is D.

In Western Europe, which of the following was which emphasized not one of the primary groups within rural life?

  • The independent farmer who owned enough land to support his family and who served as an agent for the noble lord

  • Small landowners and tenant farmers who sold their best produce to earn money for taxes, rent, and food

  • Rural workers who worked as dependent laborers and servants

  • Serfs who were required to work for the local lord and did not own land in their own right

How did the urban-rural dynamic change in Eastern Europe in the seventeenth century?

  • Towns gained control over agricultural markets and forced rural communities to support the services that towns provided.

  • Landlords sold agricultural products directly to foreigners, bypassing towns, which caused the urban middle class to greatly decline.

  • Towns gained broad political privileges as they established manufacturing establishments, linking the growing middle class to the urban environment.

  • Landlords increasingly moved to towns and established vibrant urban cultures while leaving the rural countryside to estate managers.

What was Richelieu’s main foreign policy goal? the seventeenth century?

  • To destroy the Habsburg’s control of territories surrounding France

  • To destroy Protestantism in Europe

  • To destroy growing English power in its colonies and on the sea

  • To reclaim French territories in northern Italy and the Pyrenees

What role did women play within the French patronage systems?

  • Women served as pawns who were exchanged as marriage partners, with no control over their marriage options.

  • Women brokered alliances among families and sustained family connections, as well as recommended individuals for honors.

  • Women offered advice to husbands but remained distinctly in the background as etiquette demanded.

  • Women controlled the patronage networks, since marriages could not be agreed on without the consent of the bride and her mother.

In Austria and Prussia, what did nobles receive in exchange for growing monarchical authority?

  • Nobles remained unchallenged masters of their peasants.

  • Nobles gained the right to establish a monopoly on manufacturing.

  • Nobles were permitted to claim church lands.

  • Nobles were granted the authority to expel all Jews from their lands.

How did Ivan IV seek to crush the power of the boyars? for growing monarchical authority?

  • He substantially diminished the power of the boyars over the peasants.

  • He forbade the boyars from service in the military.

  • He created a service nobility dependent on the state for titles and estates.

  • He required all of the boyars to live at his new royal court in St. Petersburg.

How did the Ottomans establish an effective bureaucracy? for growing monarchical authority?

  • The Ottomans established severe laws requiring immediate obedience to all bureaucratic rulings.

  • The Ottomans required all communities to provide boys for training in bureaucratic skills.

  • The Ottomans implemented rigorous educational standards for entrance into the bureaucracy.

  • The Ottomans trained slaves, and the most talented slaves rose to the top of the bureaucracy.

Why were religious tensions in England increasing in the early seventeenth century?

  • Puritans believed the Church of England needed to be cleansed of Roman Catholic elements.

  • Jews were demanding greater civil rights.

  • Anglican bishops sought to reclaim church lands seized during the Reformation.

  • Catholics priests sought the right to accept positions within Anglican churches.

How did the coronation of William and Mary resolve the issue of sovereignty in England?

  • Parliament was recognized as the sovereign authority, with the right to remove or overthrow monarchs who challenged its authority.

  • Sovereignty was divided between the monarchy and parliament, and the king ruled with the consent of the governed.

  • The monarchy was recognized as the sovereign authority, with Parliament having the ability to shape or influence monarchical decisions.

  • The Parliament was identified as the sovereign authority, but its authority was limited by both the courts and the monarchy.

The Catholic Church wanted the baroque movement to promoted what sensibility?

  • An intensely emotional, exuberant sensibility that emphasized ceaseless striving

  • A highly structured and ordered sensibility that emphasized reason

  • A measured, calm sensibility that emphasized reflective contemplation

  • A mystical style promoting fear and wonder

Answer Key for Chapter 16 what sensibility?

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

Chapter 17: Toward a New Worldview, 1540-1789 what sensibility?

i>Clicker Questions

How did Ptolemy account for the apparent backward motion of planets?

  • He asserted that the speed of the earth’s rotation increased and decreased with the tides.

  • He asserted that the planets moved in small circles as they moved along the larger circles of their orbits.

  • He asserted that the light of planets was refracted by the earth’s atmosphere, creating the illusion of backward movement.

  • He asserted that God had created backward motion to confound the pagans and lead them to God.

Why did Copernicus find Ptolemy’s system unsatisfactory? planets?

  • Copernicus found that Ptolemy’s calculations did not account for the appearance of meteors or other occasional bodies in the heavens.

  • Copernicus rejected Ptolemy’s reliance on arbitrary mathematical constants that made his system more effective but had no particular rationale.

  • Copernicus believed that Ptolemy’s mathematically cumbersome and occasionally inaccurate rules detracted from the majesty of a perfect Creator.

  • Copernicus refused to believe that God would have revealed the true nature of the heavens to a non-Christian pagan.

Of his many accomplishments, what was Galileo’s greatest achievement?

  • The invention of the telescope

  • The elaboration and consolidation of the experimental method

  • The formulation of the law of inertia

  • The demonstrations that a uniform force produced a uniform acceleration

What was the central component of Isaac Newton’s unified system of the universe?

  • The sun’s gravitational force holds the universe in a stable system.

  • Every body in the universe attracts every other body in a precisely mathematical relationship.

  • The force of attraction in the universe emanates from a single source that drives and orders the universe.

  • The force of attraction is balanced against an equal force of repulsion that establishes stability.

How did Enlightenment thinkers differ from those of the Renaissance?

  • Renaissance writers accepted Christianity, while most Enlightenment writers rejected Christianity.

  • Renaissance writers argued for the primacy of reason, while Enlightenment authors broadly embraced sentimentality as a central component of thought.

  • Renaissance writers were often persecuted and despised, but Enlightenment authors rarely raised political or religious opposition.

  • Renaissance writers took inspiration from the classical past, but Enlightenment writers believed their era had gone far beyond antiquity.

What did Montesquieu believe was the central condition to promote liberty and prevent tyranny?

  • A wealthy middle class that established prosperity and valued education

  • A division of political power among a variety of classes holding unequal rights

  • A set of representative institutions that held regular elections

  • A firmly established court system that defended political rights

What role did the salonnières play within salons? promote liberty and prevent tyranny?

  • The salonnières mediated among the individuals of different status and different philosophical, religious, and social beliefs.

  • The salonnières provided amusements and refreshments and then withdrew as the men at the salon began to discuss and debate issues.

  • The salonnières provided their homes but left the organizing work of the salon to male patrons.

  • The salonnières dominated their salons with strict schedules in order to control debate and discussion.

Which of the following best characterizes the “public sphere”?

  • The commercial marketplace in which authors published their books and newspapers and journals sought subscriptions

  • An idealized space informed by critical reason where individuals discuss and debate the issues of the day

  • A free-speech area established in most cities where individuals could speak without fear of government persecution

  • A space inside of royal palaces where commoners were permitted to watch kings and the nobility perform court rituals

How did Frederick II of Prussia provide a new justification for monarchy?

  • With his defeat of the Pugachev Rebellion, Frederick justified the monarchy in terms of internal stability.

  • With his military victories, Frederick justified monarchy in terms of foreign conquest.

  • With his reforms, Frederick justified the monarchy in terms of practical results.

  • With his cultural activities, Frederick justified the monarchy in terms of promoting civilization.

What was the principle idea of cameralism? for monarchy?

  • All elements of society should be placed at the service of the monarchy, which should use its resources and authority to improve society.

  • The greatest prosperity for the greatest number can be achieved by limiting government interference in the economy.

  • The adoption of intellectual freedom will permit humans to unleash their productive capacities and improve society in all aspects.

  • An alliance of middle-class merchants and the state will provide the greatest avenue toward economic growth.

Answer Key for Chapter 17 for monarchy?

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is D.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is A.

  • Answer is B.

  • Answer is C.

  • Answer is A.