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  1. 1. Psychology is defined as: • A) the study of dreams and childhood trauma • B) the study of behavior. • C) the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. • D) the science of behavior and consequences.

  2. An essay of the political philosopher _____, arguing the mind is a blank slate, helped form modern empiricism. • A) Bacon • B) Locke • C) Descartes • D) Plato

  3. 6. The first psychological laboratory was established by: • A) Wilhelm Wundt. • B) Sigmund Freud. • C) John Locke. • D) B.F. Skinner.

  4. 7. Tichner believed in the method called ____ to investigate psychological processes. • A) the experimental method • B) cause-and-effect relationships • C) introspection • D) psychoanalysis

  5. 8. William James studied behavior based on how it was adaptive. He was heavily influenced by _____. • A) John Locke • B) Charles Darwin • C) Sigmund Freud • D) Francis Bacon

  6. 11. Watson and Skinner would be in agreement in their: • A) high esteem of psychoanalysis. • B) dismissal of introspection. • C) definition of psychology as the study of behavior and mental processes. • D) study of cognitive neuroscience.

  7. 13. A psychologist explains human mate selection in terms of helping the species to continue. She is using the ____ perspective. • A) social-cultural • B) neuroscience • C) evolutionary • D) biological

  8. 15. In studying anger, the psychologist who views an anger outburst as an outlet for unconscious hostility is coming from the ___ perspective. • A) neuroscience • B) evolutionary • C) cognitive • D) psychodynamic

  9. 17. The ___ has a medical degree and prescribes medication. • A) clinical psychologist • B) neuropsychologist • C) psychiatrist • D) all of the above

  10. 1. Psychology is currently defined as: • A) the scientific study of behavior. • B) the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. • C) the scientific study of biological and cognitive processes. • D) the scientific study of motives and conflicts.

  11. 2. The ____ administers tests and provides therapy and the ___ prescribes medication. • A) clinical psychologist; psychiatrist • B) psychiatrist; clinical psychologist • C) counseling psychologist; clinical psychologist • D) school psychologist; clinical psychologist

  12. 4. Dr. James proposes that men’s desire for young, healthy women contributes to the survival of the human species. He is taking the ___ perspective. • A) psychodynamic • B) neurological • C) evolutionary • D) socio-cultural

  13. 6. Julie appeared not to be surprised when the couple broke up. “I could have predicted that,” she said. Julie is demonstrating: • A) ESP. • B) hindsight bias. • C) overestimation the extent to which others share her opinion. • D) correlation proves causation.

  14. 10. The following is an example of an operational definition: • A) stress is defined as how well a person adjusts to his/her environment. • B) personality is defined as how well that person relates to others. • C) empathy is defined as showing you can understand the other person’s feelings. • D) intelligence is defined as a score on an intelligence test. • E) all of the above.

  15. 11. When everybody has an equal chance of being included in a study, this process is called: • A) unbiased reporting. • B) a survey. • C) a random sample. • D) reliability.

  16. 12. Which of the following correlation coefficients reflects the strongest correlation? • A) +.10 • B) -.64 • C) +.35 • D) -.10

  17. 13. A mistaken belief that two factors or events are related when they are not is called: • A) the rule of falsifiability. • B) pseudoscience. • C) an illusory correlation. • D) paranormal phenomena.

  18. 15. Consistently, we find low self-esteem is often related with high levels of depression. This means: • A) low self-esteem causes depression. • B) depression causes low self-esteem. • C) low self-esteem and depression are caused by a third factor. • D) they are correlated but this does not prove causation.

  19. 16. In order to prove a cause-and-effect relationship, we must use: • A) naturalistic observation. • B) the experimental method. • C) human subjects. • D) correlation coefficients.

  20. 17. In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to the treatment of interest is in the: • A) control condition. • B) independent condition. • C) placebo condition. • D) experimental condition.

  21. 18. Neither the researcher nor the subjects knew whether or not they received the drug studied or a placebo. This is an example of: • A) expectancy effects. • B) placebo effects. • C) a double-blind study. • D) nothing. It would be ridiculous.

  22. 20. Dr. Schulte wants to investigate if aggressive behavior in children is increased if they view violent videos. In this instance, the dependent variable is: • A) violent videos. • B) aggressive behavior. • C) a placebo. • D) the control condition.

  23. 21. Which measure of central tendency is the exact middle score of a distribution of scores? • A) mean • B) median • C) mode • D) coefficient

  24. 1. Branching fibers extending out from the cell body to receive information from other neurons are called: • A) axons. • B) glial cells. • C) dendrites. • D) axon terminals.

  25. 2. ___ wrap(s) many axons, insulating them and speeding their impulses. • A) Sodium ions • B) Myelin • C) Glial cells • D) Potassium ions

  26. 3. The brief electrical impulse transmitted along the axon is called the: • A) action potential. • B) stimulus threshold. • C) electrical cascade. • D) sodium pump.

  27. 6. The device called a(n) ___ provides moment-by-moment images of the brain’s changing activity and is noninvasive. • A) EEG • B) PET scan • C) MRI • D) fMRI

  28. 7. The ___ receives information from all the senses except smell. • A) hippocampus • B) amygdala • C) thalamus • D) angular gyrus

  29. 8. The ____ is located at the back of the brain and is responsible for muscle coordination, posture and equilibrium. • A) corpus callosum • B) reticular formation • C) pons • D) cerebellum

  30. 9. These make up most of the cerebral cortex, and enable learning, memory and integrating information. • A) reticular formations • B) projection areas • C) association areas • D) temporal lobes

  31. 10. Auditory information is received and processed in the: • A) somatosensory cortex. • B) temporal lobe. • C) parietal lobe. • D) frontal lobe.

  32. 11. An impaired use of language due to a brain lesion is known as: • A) tomography. • B) aphasia. • C) plasticity. • D) phrenology.

  33. 12. The ability of one part of the brain to take over the function of another in case of injury is called: • A) plasticity. • B) neurogenesis. • C) brain reintegration. • D) neural net reformation.

  34. 13. After Sam’s stroke, he had difficulty speaking, but could understand what others were saying to him. He likely had damage to: • A) Wernicke’s Area. • B) Broca’s Area. • C) his Thalamus. • D) his parietal lobe.

  35. 14. After a sky-diving accident, Laurie was unable to make sense of other people’s speech. It is likely that her cortex was damaged in: • A) the sensory area. • B) Broca’s area. • C) the angular gyrus. • D) Wernicke’s area.

  36. 15. In a recent car accident, Justin sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This injury is most likely to reduce his ability to: • A) tell an angry face from a happy one. • B) solve arithmetic problems. • C) speak clearly. • D) process information quickly.

  37. 16. In order for you to experience the pain of being stuck with a pin, ___ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system. • A) the limbic system. • B) interneurons. • C) sensory neurons. • D) the reticular formation.

  38. 17. When you’re stressed and your heart races, perspiration increases and pupils dilate, the ___ is activated. • A) somatic nervous system • B) parasympathetic branch • C) sympathetic branch • D) spinal reflex

  39. 19. The ____ system is made up of glands which secret ___ into the bloodstream. • A) peripheral nervous; antagonists • B) sympathetic; neurotransmitters • C) autonomic; action potentials • D) endocrine; hormones

  40. 21. This device is often used to diagnose seizure activity by recording electrical activity of the brain: • A) CAT scan. • B) EEG. • C) PET scan. • D) MRI.

  41. 22. A person with a “split brain” had surgery to cut the: • A) frontal lobe. • B) corpus callosum. • C) sensory from the motor strip. • D) cerebellum from the cerebral cortex.

  42. 23. The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person’s skull indicates the extent to which that individual is argumentative and aggressive would be a: • A) neurologist. • B) behavior geneticist. • C) psychoanalyst. • D) phrenologist.

  43. 24: Phineas Gage had extensive damage to his ____ of the brain, effecting his ____. • A) frontal lobe; personality • B) right hemisphere; speech • C) left temporal lobe; reasoning • D) cerebellum; coordination

  44. 25. Stimulate this area in a cat, and it will either fear a mouse or become extremely aggressive. • A) hippocampus. • B) hypothalamus. • C) amygdala. • D) thalamus.

  45. 2. The prenatal stage of development has three phases, in the order of: • A) embryo, fetus, zygote. • B) zygote, fetus, embryo. • C) fertile, fetal, birth. • D) zygote, embryo, fetus.

  46. 3. Teratogens are: • A) recessive genes that result in birth defects. • B) microorganisms that can cause mutations in normal development. • C) toxic agents which can cause defects in an embryo or fetus. • D) alleles that react negatively to the environment.

  47. 6. Touching a newborn’s cheek can trigger the ___ reflex, turning its head toward the source of touch and opening its mouth. • A) sucking. • B) rooting. • C) grasping. • D) nuzzling.

  48. 7. Newborns prefer to look at: • A) a bull’s eye pattern. • B) a human face. • C) a circle. • D) a shiny object.

  49. 8. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. This is called: • A) habituation. • B) visual boredom. • C) visual exhaustion. • D) object permanence.

  50. 9. Psychologists who study physical, social and cognitive changes throughout the human life cycle are: • A) child psychologists. • B) developmental psychologists. • C) clinical psychologists. • D) cognitive-behavioral psychologists.