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Understanding Psychology 6 th Edition Charles G. Morris and Albert A. Maisto. PowerPoint Presentation by H. Lynn Bradman Metropolitan Community College. Chapter 9. Life-Span Development. Enduring Issues and Methods in Developmental Psychology.

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understanding psychology 6 th edition charles g morris and albert a maisto

Understanding Psychology6th EditionCharles G. Morris and Albert A. Maisto

PowerPoint Presentation by

H. Lynn Bradman

Metropolitan Community College

©Prentice Hall 2003

chapter 9
Chapter 9

Life-Span Development

©Prentice Hall 2003

enduring issues and methods in developmental psychology
Enduring Issues and Methods in Developmental Psychology
  • What are some of the limitations of the methods used to study development?
  • Cross-sectional studies involve studying different age groups of people
  • Longitudinal studies test the same group of individuals at different times in their lives.

©Prentice Hall 2003

research methodologies
Research Methodologies
  • Cross-sectional:
    • Examining groups of subjects who are of different ages.
  • Longitudinal:
    • Examining the same group of subjects two or more times as they age.
  • Biographical:
    • Studying developmental changes by reconstructing subjects’ past through interviews and investigating the effects of past events on current behaviors.

©Prentice Hall 2003

cross sectional studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Advantages
    • Inexpensive
    • Relatively quick to complete
    • No high attrition rate

©Prentice Hall 2003

cross sectional studies6
Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Disadvantages
    • Different age groups may be dissimilar
    • Age and maturity may not be equivalent
    • Confounds cohort and age differences

©Prentice Hall 2003

longitudinal studies
Longitudinal Studies
  • Advantages
    • Detailed information about subjects
    • Provides great detail of developmental changes
    • Follows same cohort groups

©Prentice Hall 2003

longitudinal studies8
Longitudinal Studies
  • Disadvantages
    • Expensive and time consuming
    • Potential for high attrition rates
    • May confound age differences & differences in assessment tools

©Prentice Hall 2003

biographical studies
Biographical Studies
  • Advantages:
    • Rich detail about one individual’s life
    • Allows for in-depth study of one individual

©Prentice Hall 2003

biographical studies10
Biographical Studies
  • Disadvantages
    • Individual’s recall is often untrustworthy
    • Can be very time consuming and expensive

©Prentice Hall 2003

prenatal development
Prenatal Development
  • The period of development from conception to birth.

©Prentice Hall 2003

prenatal development12
Prenatal Development
  • Prenatal development:
    • Development from conception to birth.
  • Embryo:
    • 2 weeks after conception to 3 months.
  • Fetus:
    • 3 months after conception to birth.

©Prentice Hall 2003

importance of the placenta
Importance of the Placenta
  • During prenatal development teratogens can pass through the placenta and cause irreparable harm to the embryo or fetus.
  • This harm is greatest if the drug or other substance is introduced just at the time when some major developmental process is taking place.
  • If the same substance is introduced outside this critical period, little or even no harm may result.

©Prentice Hall 2003

fetal alcohol syndrome fas
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • Alcohol is a drug most commonly abused by pregnant women.
  • Heavy alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy is characterized by facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments.
  • Smaller amounts of alcohol may also cause impairments.

©Prentice Hall 2003

slide15
The Newborn

©Prentice Hall 2003

reflexes
Reflexes
  • Rooting reflex:
    • A baby turns its head toward something touching its cheek and gropes around with its mouth.
  • Sucking reflex:
    • Sucking on any object placed in a baby’s mouth.
  • Swallowing reflex:
    • Enables the baby to swallow liquids without choking.

©Prentice Hall 2003

reflexes17
Reflexes
  • Grasping reflex:
    • Closing their fists on anything placed in their hands.
  • Stepping reflex:
    • The light stepping motions made by babies if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface.

©Prentice Hall 2003

temperament
Temperament
  • The physical and emotional characteristics of the newborn child and young infant.
  • Babies are born with individual differences in personality called temperament differences.
  • Often a baby's temperament remains quite stable over time due to a combination of genetic and environmental influences.

©Prentice Hall 2003

temperament19
Temperament
  • Stability in temperament is not inevitable; changes in temperament can also take place.
  • Your own temperament may be both similar to and different from the temperament you displayed as a newborn.

©Prentice Hall 2003

three types of temperaments
Three Types of Temperaments
  • Easy:
    • Good-natured and adaptable, easy to care for and please
  • Difficult:
    • Moody and intense, reacting to new people and new situations negatively and strongly
  • Slow-to-warm-up:
    • Relatively inactive and slow to respond to new things, and when they do react, their reactions are mild

©Prentice Hall 2003

perceptual abilities
Perceptual Abilities
  • All of a baby's senses are functioning at birth:
    • Sight
    • Hearing
    • Taste
    • Smell
    • Touch

©Prentice Hall 2003

vision
Vision
  • A baby’s least developed sense is probably vision, which takes 6 to 8 months to become as good as the average college student's.
  • Infants prefer: a novel picture or pattern with clear contrasts and their own mother rather than a stranger.

©Prentice Hall 2003

depth perception
Depth Perception
  • Crawling babies will not cross over onto the deep side during the visual cliff experiments.
  • Babies too young to crawl:
    • No anxiety, but do demonstrate depth perception
  • 2-4 months old:
    • Begin to perceive patterns, objects, and depth

©Prentice Hall 2003

other senses
Other Senses
  • Although it is hard to tell exactly what a baby's sensory world is like, newborns seem particularly adept at discriminating speech sounds;
  • This suggests that their hearing is quite good.

©Prentice Hall 2003

other senses25
Other Senses
  • Infants have likes and dislikes with regard to smells.
  • Infants like sweet flavors, a preference which persists through childhood.

©Prentice Hall 2003

slide26
Infancy and Childhood

©Prentice Hall 2003

physical growth
Physical Growth
  • During the first dozen years of life a helpless infant becomes a competent older child.
  • This transformation encompasses many important kinds of changes, including physical, motor, cognitive, and social developments.

©Prentice Hall 2003

physical growth28
Physical Growth
  • Growth of the body is most rapid during the first year, with the average baby growing approximately 10 inches and gaining about 15 pounds.
  • It then slows down considerably until early adolescence.
  • When growth does occur, it happens suddenly, almost overnight, rather than through small, steady changes.

©Prentice Hall 2003

motor development
Motor Development
  • Babies tend to reach the major milestones in early motor development at broadly similar ages, give or take a few months.
  • The average ages are called developmental norms.
  • Maturation, the biological process that lead to developmental changes, also is shaped by experiences with the environment.

©Prentice Hall 2003

developmental trends
Developmental Trends
  • Cephalocaudal:
    • Development occurs in areas near the head (cephalo) first and areas farther from the head develop later (caudal means tail).
  • Proximodistal:
    • Development occurs near the center of the body (proximal) first and near the extremities (distal) later.

©Prentice Hall 2003

developmental trends31
Developmental Trends
  • Gross to specific development:
    • Children tend to gain control of gross (large muscle) movement before they gain control of specific (or fine motor control) movement.

©Prentice Hall 2003

cognitive development
Cognitive Development
  • According to the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, children undergo qualitative changes in thinking as they grow older.
  • Piaget depicted these changes as a series of stages.

©Prentice Hall 2003

cognitive development piaget
Cognitive Development (Piaget)
  • Sensory-motor stage (birth-2)
  • Preoperational stage (2-7)
  • Concrete operational (7-11)
  • Formal operational (11-15)

©Prentice Hall 2003

sensory motor stage
Sensory-Motor Stage
  • Object permanence:
    • The concept that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight.
  • Mental representations:
    • Mental images or symbols (such as words) used to think about or remember an object, a person, or an event.

©Prentice Hall 2003

preoperational stage
Preoperational Stage
  • A child becomes able to use mental representations and language to describe, remember, and reason about the world.
  • Egocentric:
    • Unable to see things from another person’s point of view.

©Prentice Hall 2003

concrete operational stage
Concrete-Operational Stage
  • A child can attend to more than one thing at a time and understand someone else’s point of view, though thinking is limited to concrete matters.
  • A child can understand conservation.

©Prentice Hall 2003

principles of conservation
Principles of Conservation
  • The concept that basic amounts remain constant despite superficial changes in appearances.

©Prentice Hall 2003

formal operational stage
Formal-Operational Stage
  • Teenagers acquire the ability to think abstractly and test ideas mentally using logic.

©Prentice Hall 2003

criticisms of piaget s theory
Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory
  • Piaget underestimated the cognitive ability of infants.
  • Cognitive milestones are reached sooner than Piaget believed.
  • Piaget did not take the role of social interaction into account.
  • The stage theory does not address human diversity.

©Prentice Hall 2003

kohlberg s stages of moral development
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
  • Preconventional:
    • Interpreting behavior in terms of its concrete consequences.
  • Conventional:
    • Interpreting behavior in terms of social and societal approval.
  • Postconventional:
    • Emphasis on abstract principles, for example justice, liberty, and equality.

©Prentice Hall 2003

criticisms of kohlberg s theory
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory
  • Many people never progress beyond the conventional level.
  • The theory does not take into account cultural differences in morals.
  • Carol Gilligan has pointed out that there may be a gender bias in the theory.

©Prentice Hall 2003

language development
Language Development
  • Some psychologists believe that childhood is a critical period for acquiring language.
  • If so, this would explain why learning a second language is also easier for children than for adults.

©Prentice Hall 2003

language development44
Language Development
  • Cooing (around 2 months):
    • Vowel-like utterances
  • Babbling (3-4 months):
    • Meaningless sounds that are the building blocks for later language development.

©Prentice Hall 2003

language development45
Language Development
  • Intonation (4-6 months):
    • The changing of pitch that adults use to distinguish questions from statements.
  • Holophrases (12-20 months):
    • One word sentences.

©Prentice Hall 2003

theories of language development
Theories of Language Development
  • B. F. Skinner:
    • Language develops as a result of reinforcement by the environment.
  • Language is a learned behavior like any other human behavior.

©Prentice Hall 2003

theories of language development47
Theories of Language Development
  • Noam Chomsky:
    • Humans have an innate ability to acquire language.
  • We are born with a language acquisition device, an innate, internal mechanism for processing speech.
  • This device allows children to understand the basic rules of grammar.

©Prentice Hall 2003

social development
Social Development
  • Developing a sense of independence is just one of the tasks that children face in their social development.
  • During the toddler period, a growing awareness of being a separate person makes developing some autonomy from parents an important issue.

©Prentice Hall 2003

imprinting
Imprinting
  • A form of primitive bonding seen in some species of animals.
  • The newborn animal has a tendency to follow the first moving thing it sees after it is born or hatched.
  • Human infants do not imprint on the first moving objects they see, but they do form attachment.

©Prentice Hall 2003

social development50
Social Development
  • Attachment:
    • The emotional bond that develops in the first year of life that makes human babies cling to their caregivers for safety and comfort.

©Prentice Hall 2003

parent child relationships
Parent-Child Relationships
  • Parents can encourage independence in their children by allowing them to make choices and do things on their own within a framework of reasonable and consistently enforced limits.

©Prentice Hall 2003

parent child relationships52
Parent-Child Relationships
  • Other major social issues during the childhood years include:
    • Forming a secure attachment toward and trust in other people (infancy)
    • Learning to take initiative in tackling new tasks (the preschool years)
    • Mastering some of the many skills that will be needed in adulthood (middle and later childhood).

©Prentice Hall 2003

parent child relationships53
Parent-Child Relationships
  • Socialization:
    • Socialization, the process by which children learn their cultures' behaviors and attitudes is an important task of childhood.

©Prentice Hall 2003

play as social development
Play As Social Development
  • Solitary play:
    • A child engaged in some activity alone; The earliest form of play.
  • Parallel play:
    • Two children playing side by side at the same activities, paying little or no attention to each other; The earliest form of social interaction between toddlers.

©Prentice Hall 2003

play as social development55
Play As Social Development
  • Cooperative play:
    • Two or more children engaged in play that requires interaction.
  • Peer group:
    • A network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another emotional and social support.

©Prentice Hall 2003

sex role development
Sex Role Development
  • Gender identity (age 3):
    • The knowledge that one is male or female.
  • Gender constancy (age 4 or 5):
    • The realization that gender cannot be changed.

©Prentice Hall 2003

sex role development57
Sex Role Development
  • Gender-role awareness:
    • Knowledge of what behavior is appropriate for each gender.
  • Gender stereotypes:
    • General beliefs about characteristics that men and women possess.
  • Sex-typed behavior:
    • Socially prescribed ways of behaving that differ for boys and girls.

©Prentice Hall 2003

what do you think
What Do You Think?
  • Does television viewing have a harmful effect on children?

©Prentice Hall 2003

slide59
Adolescence

©Prentice Hall 2003

physical changes in adolescence
Physical Changes in Adolescence
  • Rapid growth and sexual maturation are just part of the transformation that occurs during this period.
  • The child turns into an adult, not only physically but also cognitively, socially, and personally.

©Prentice Hall 2003

growth spurt
Growth Spurt
  • A rapid increase in height and weight that occurs during adolescence.
  • The growth spurt for girls typically occurs around age 10.5.
  • The growth spurt for boys typically occurs around age 12.5.

©Prentice Hall 2003

sexual development of females
Sexual Development of Females
  • The first sign of puberty is the growth spurt.
  • The breasts begin to develop and pubic hair begins to appear.
  • Menarche (the first menstrual period) occurs a year after the development of the breasts (between 12.5 and 13 years old).

©Prentice Hall 2003

sexual development of males
Sexual Development of Males
  • The initial sign of puberty is the growth of the testes (around 11.5 years old).
  • During the growth spurt (around age 12.5) enlargement of the penis occurs.
  • Development of pubic hair.
  • Development of facial hair.
  • The first ejaculation (around age 13.5).
  • The deepening of the voice is one of the last changes.

©Prentice Hall 2003

early versus late development
Early Versus Late Development
  • Early development for boys has positive impact:
    • They are better in sports and receive greater respect from their peers.
  • Early development has both positive and negative effects for girls:
    • Early developing girls may be admired by other girls, but may be treated as a sex object by boys.

©Prentice Hall 2003

slide65
Cognitive Changes

©Prentice Hall 2003

cognitive distortions in adolescence
Cognitive Distortions in Adolescence
  • Imaginary audience:
    • The deluded belief of adolescents that they are constantly being observed by others.
  • Personal fable:
    • The deluded belief of adolescents that they are unique, very important, and invulnerable.

©Prentice Hall 2003

forming an identity
Forming an Identity
  • Identity formation:
    • The development of a stable sense of self, necessary to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself.
  • Identity crisis:
    • A period of intense self-examination and decision making; Part of the process of identity formation.

©Prentice Hall 2003

possible outcomes of an identity crisis
Possible Outcomes of an Identity Crisis
  • Identity achievement:
    • Successful resolution of identity crisis
  • Identity foreclosure:
    • Chosen an identity that pleases others
  • Moratorium:
    • Still exploring various roles, but have not chosen one yet
  • Identity diffusion:
    • Avoid considering role options in any conscious manner

©Prentice Hall 2003

some problems of adolescence
Some Problems of Adolescence
  • Declines in self-esteem may result from the physical, social, or emotional changes
  • In addition, teenagers have to cope with the demands of their new sexuality, the potential for early pregnancy, and the threat of violence in their peer groups.
  • Depression and suicide rates for teens are up from past decades.

©Prentice Hall 2003

risk factors of teen suicide
Risk Factors of Teen Suicide
  • Being female
  • Thinking about suicide
  • Having a mental disorder, for example depression
  • Having a poorly educated father who is absent from the home

©Prentice Hall 2003

adulthood
Adulthood
  • Reaching developmental milestones in adulthood is much less predictable than in earlier years.
  • There are certain experiences and changes that take place sooner or later in nearly everyone's life and certain needs that nearly every adult tries to fulfill.

©Prentice Hall 2003

lifestyle options in adulthood
Lifestyle Options in Adulthood
  • Marriage (more than 90% of Americans eventually marry)
  • Cohabitation
  • Gay or lesbian relationship
  • Remaining single

©Prentice Hall 2003

adjustments to parenthood
Adjustments to Parenthood
  • Parents may have little time or energy for each other.
  • Parents may experience conflict between their careers and home responsibilities.
  • Marital satisfaction tends to decline after the arrival of the first child.

©Prentice Hall 2003

possible effects of divorce on children
Possible Effects of Divorce on Children
  • Poorer school performance
  • Self-esteem problems
  • Problems with gender-role development
  • Emotional adjustments
  • Difficulty maintaining relationships
  • Negative attitude toward marriage

©Prentice Hall 2003

slide76
Work
  • The vast majority of adults are moderately or highly satisfied with their jobs and would continue to work even if they didn't need to for financial reasons.
  • Balancing the demands of job and family is often difficult, however, especially for women, because they tend to have most of the responsibility for housework and childcare.

©Prentice Hall 2003

slide77
Work
  • Yet despite this stress of a 'double shift,' a job outside the home is a positive, self-esteem-boosting factor in most women's lives.

©Prentice Hall 2003

cognitive changes
Cognitive Changes
  • An adult's thinking is more flexible and practical than an adolescent's.
  • Whereas adolescents search for the one "correct" solution to a problem, adults realize that there may be several "right" solutions or none at all.
  • Adults also place less faith in authorities than adolescents do.

©Prentice Hall 2003

personality changes
Personality Changes
  • Certain broad patterns of personality change occur in adulthood.
  • As people grow older, they tend to become less self-centered and more comfortable in interpersonal relationships.

©Prentice Hall 2003

personality changes81
Personality Changes
  • They also develop better coping skills and new ways of adapting.
  • By middle age many adults feel an increasing commitment to, and responsibility for, others.
  • This suggests that many adults are successfully meeting what Erik Erikson saw as the major challenge of middle adulthood.

©Prentice Hall 2003

middle adulthood
Middle Adulthood
  • Midlife crisis:
    • A time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jobs or personal lives and attempt to make a decisive shift
    • Most people do not experience a midlife crisis.
  • Midlife transition:
    • A process whereby adults assess the past and formulate new goals for the future.
  • Menopause:
    • The time in a woman’s life when menstruation ceases.

©Prentice Hall 2003

late adulthood
Late Adulthood
  • Over the past century life expectancy in America has increased mainly because of improved health care and nutrition.
  • There is, however, a sizable gender gap, with women living an average of 7 years longer than men.
  • There is also a sizable racial gap, with white Americans living an average of 5 years longer than blacks.

©Prentice Hall 2003

factors that affect physical well being
Factors that Affect Physical Well-Being
  • Diet
  • Amount of exercise
  • Quality of health care
  • Smoking or drug use
  • Overexposure to the sun
  • Attitude and interest

©Prentice Hall 2003

adjustments to retirement
Adjustments to Retirement
  • Psychological adjustments
  • Financial adjustments
  • Marital (or relationship) adjustments
  • Social adjustments

©Prentice Hall 2003

sexual and social behavior
Sexual and Social Behavior
  • Although their sexual responses may be slowed, most continue to enjoy sex in their sixties and seventies.
  • Still, gradual social changes occur in late adulthood.
  • Older adults start to interact with fewer people and perform fewer social roles.
  • They may also become less influenced by social rules and expectations.

©Prentice Hall 2003

the aging process
The Aging Process
  • The aging mind works a little more slowly, and certain kinds of memories are more difficult to store and retrieve, but these changes are generally not extensive enough to interfere with most everyday tasks.
  • Healthy older adults who engage in intellectually stimulating activities usually maintain a high level of mental functioning.

©Prentice Hall 2003

alzheimer s disease
Alzheimer’s Disease
  • A disorder characterized by progressive losses in memory and cognition and changes in personality that is believed to be caused by a deterioration of the brain’s structure and function.

©Prentice Hall 2003

risk factors for developing alzheimer s disease
Risk Factors for Developing Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Family history of dementia
  • Having Down syndrome or Parkinson’s disease
  • Being born to a woman over the age of 40
  • Suffering a head trauma
  • Being heterozygous for a certain gene located on chromosome 19

©Prentice Hall 2003

facing death
Facing Death
  • Most elderly people fear death less than younger people do.
  • What they do fear are the pain, indignity, depersonalization, and loneliness associated with a terminal illness.
  • They also worry about becoming a financial burden to their families.
  • The death of a spouse may be the most severe challenge the elderly face.

©Prentice Hall 2003

k bler ross s stages of dying
Kübler-Ross’s Stages of Dying
  • Denial
  • Anger
  • Bargaining
  • Depression
  • Acceptance

©Prentice Hall 2003