History of Psychology Timeline Psychology National American University
History of Psychology Timeline Under Pericles Rule, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle (500 BCE) Para Psyche, the first book written on Psychology Aristotle First course in scientific psychology (1860’s) Wundt First journal of psychology (1881) Wundt First psychology course at Harvard (1972) James First psychology lab in US (1970’s) James The Principles of Psychology, a text book on psychology (1890) James New treatments of mental illness (1890’s) Meyer First standardized IQ Test (1905) Binet and Simon Baby Albert experiment (1920) Watson Sociocultural (1920’s) Vygotsky Id, Ego and Super Ego Theory (1933) Freud Self Actualization ideas in the book, The Organism (1934) Maslow Conditioning of dogs experiment (early 20th century) Pavlov Psychosexual Stages ( 1940/1964) Freud Operant Conditioning experiments with (1953) Skinner 4 Stages of Cognitive Development (1954) Piaget A positive approach to psychology in the U.S. (late 1950’s) Psychosocial Stages (1963-1982) Erikson Bobo the Clown experiment (1965) Bandura Publication of book Cognitive Psychology (1967) Neisser Bioecolological Model (1979-2006) Bronfenbrenner
Ancient Philosophy Important Events Under Pericles Rule, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle (500 BCE) Para Psyche, the first book written on Psychology Aristotle Major Contributors Socrates (470-399 BCE) Responsible for getting others to think and understand logically. Plato (427-347 BCE) Began foundation to mind-body dualism and taught Aristotle. Aristotle (384-322BCE) Laid out ground word to scientific method. Thought to be forward thinking. Began theories of urges driving us. Ancient Philosophy not only laid ground work for methods we still use today, it opened the door to be open minded and to think critically. Everyday, ideas and theories during this time period shape how we think, experiment and rationalize with others.
Structuralism Important Events First course in scientific psychology (1860’s) Wundt First journal of psychology (1881) Wundt Taught at Cornell University (1892) Major Contributors Wilhem Wundt (1832-1920) People must experience something in a controlled environment to truly understand. Edward Titchner (1867-1927) Behaviors had little to do with psychology. Proposal of mental stages and was influential in the structure side of his works. Structuralism is very scientific and uses no critical thinking methods. Theories from this period only dealt with the adult mind as if others didn’t exist.
Functionalism Important Events First psychology course at Harvard (1972) James First psychology lab in US (1970’s) James The Principles of Psychology, a text book on psychology (1890) James Major Contributors William James (1842–1910) Psychology work swayed more to experiments and labs as time went on. His theories left path of science and went philosophical, who and what is out there. Each person is thought to have free will and be unique in how they feel, react, and think on a physiological level. Functionalism opened the door to science blending with psychology.
Psychoanalytical Perspective Important Events Id, Ego and Super Ego Theory (1933) Freud Psychosexual Stages ( 1940/1964) Freud Psychosocial Stages (1963-1982) Erikson Major Contributors Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) A Vienna native known for controversial ideas about children and their parents. Psychoanalysis and dream analysis ideas are still used today. Carl Jung (1875-1961) “Collective unconscious” ideas about déjà-vu and memories. Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Individual psychology theories. Eric Erikson (1902-1994) Stages of development designed for all ages of life. Believed a person would not be able to feel complete if skipping completion of a stage. Karen Horney (1885-1952) Neurosis and coping strategies so that people didn’t let ideas of feelings get the best of them. The psychoanalytical perspective proposed that people are driven by motives and emotions that may or may not be known. This perspective challenged how development and human nature was perceived. Many of these contributions are still focused on today, but also well criticized. Ideas of this perspective were very influenced by Aristotle.
Behavioral Perspective Important Events Conditioning of dogs experiment (early 20th century) Pavlov Baby Albert experiment (1920) Watson Operant Conditioning experiments with (1953) Skinner Major Contributors Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Earned Nobel Prize in 1904 for work. Well known for experiments to prove theories. John Watson (1878-1958) Experiments followed Pavlov’s path. B.F. Skinner(1904-1990) Known as a famous American Psychologist. Focus on operant conditioning with reinforcement and punishment. Behavioral perspective attempts to use nurturing to take free will away. Structuralism highly influenced followers of the behavioral perspective and took it one step further. Operant conditioning is still used today in many aspects of the military and schools and work environments.
Humanistic Perspective Important Events A positive approach to psychology in the U.S. (late 1950’s) Self Actualization ideas in the book, The Organism (1934) Maslow Major Contributors Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Some needs were thought to take over other needs. Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Very clinical and thought people as basically good. Rollo May (1909-1994) Known for combining ideas to make a new theory. Humanistic views sparked from a free will perspective over the nature views that both behaviorism and psychoanalytic followed. The perspective was coined the Third Force since it was the third psychology concept to hit the United States. Each person has the power and knows what is best for themselves.
Cognitive Perspective Important Events 4 Stages of Cognitive Development (1954) Piaget Publication of book Cognitive Psychology (1967) Neisser First standardized IQ Test (1905) Binet and Simon Major Contributors Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Used science to experiment how and when children learn. Many of his tests are redone with new twists to get a better idea on how early we can learn. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) Studied with Simon to develop IQ tests. UlricNeisser The first to coin theories in this perspective as Cognitive Cognitive thinking was based on both structuralism and functionalism. The mind works like a computer and can adapt by learning and memories. This perspective was developed after theorists were looking for something more clear during the 50’s and 60’s.
Biopsychological Perspective Important Events New treatments of mental illness (1890’s) Meyer Bioecolological Model (1979-2006) Bronfenbrenner Major Contributors Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) Patients were believed to be personally responsible for ailments. Chemicals in our bodies play a role in how we think, we need to work against it. UrieBronfenbrenner ( 1917-2005) A persons genetics and environment influence in how they think and act. Gilbert Gottlieb (1973-1980) DNA make-up is responsible for how we think and who we become. Meyer’s beliefs and breakthroughs on mental illness came from ideas of functionalism, the mind and body interacting as one. Biology being a big factor on how the mind and body work together. Both Bronfenbrenner and Gottlieb used technology to push more into the biological side of how and why are minds function and think.
Socialcultural Perspective Important Events Vygotsky’s work banned in Soviet Union Sociocultural (1920’s) Vygotsky Bobo the Clown experiment (1965) Bandura Major Contributors Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) People were thought to learn by social interactions. Died at a very young age. Thought that more could have come from his views if he lived longer. Albert Bandura (1925-Present) Used conditioning techniques to prove learning can be observational. This perspective derived from a cognitive background. Vygotsky followed and then disagreed with Jean Piaget’s view’s. Learning is different culturally, historically, universally and completely self regulating. Each person follows and copies what they see around them with little room to think for themselves.
References Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved 10 15, 2010, from Personality Theories: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/perscontents.html Shuttleworth, M. (2010). ARISTOTLE’S PSYCHOLOGY - THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY. Retrieved 110 15, 2010, from Experinment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/aristotles-psychology.html Sigel, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2009, 2006). Life-Span Human Development (6th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. William James, Wilhelm (Max) Wundt, Edward Titchner. (2010). Retrieved 10 17, 2010, from Biography.com: http://www.biography.com/articles/William-James-9352726?part=2, http://www.biography.com/articles/Wilhelm-Max-Wundt-9537981,