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Chapter 1: Welcome to Sport and Exercise Psychology C H A P T E R 1 Welcome to Sport and Exercise Psychology
Session Outline • What is sport and exercise psychology? • Two objectives of sport and exercise psychology • Who is sport and exercise psychology for? • What do sport and exercise psychology specialists do? (three roles) (continued)
Session Outline (continued) • Clinical versus educational sport psychology specialists • Relationship of sport science and psychology knowledge to sport and exercise psychology • History of sport and exercise psychology • Science of sport and exercise psychology (continued)
Session Outline (continued) • Understanding professional practice knowledge • Comparing strengths and limitations of scientific and professional practice knowledge • Sport and exercise psychology orientations (continued)
Session Outline (continued) • Present and future of sport and exercise psychology • Ethical standards for sport and exercise psychologists
Sport and Exercise Psychology The scientific study of people and their behaviors in sport and exercise activities and the practical application of that knowledge
Two Objectives of Sportand Exercise Psychology • Understand the effects of psychological factors on physical and motor performance. • Understand the effects of participation in physical activity on psychological development, health, and well-being.
Objective 1: Typical Questions Studied in Sport and Exercise Psychology • How does anxiety affect a basketball player’s accuracy in free-throw shooting? • Does lacking self-confidence influence a child’s ability to learn to swim? • How do a coach’s reinforcement and punishment influence a team’s cohesion? • Does imagery training facilitate the recovery process in injured athletes and exercisers?
Objective 2: Typical Questions Studied in Sport and Exercise Psychology • Does running reduce anxiety and depression? • Do young athletes learn to be overly aggressive from participation in youth sports? • Does participation in daily physical education classes improve a child’s self-esteem?
Seniors Children Exercisers Elite athletes Average athletes Persons who are physically and mentally challenged Coaches, teachers, and fitness leaders Sport and Exercise Psychology Applies to a Broad Population Base
Roles of the Sport and Exercise Psychologist Research: Inquiry aimed at advancing knowledge and sharing it through professional meetings and journal articles Teaching: Teaching university courses in either psychology or exercise and sport science Consulting: Working with athletes of all ages and abilities in the fitness industry and in sports medicine and physical therapy
Sport Psychology Specialties • Clinical sport psychologists • Educational sport psychology specialists
Clinical Sport Psychologists • are licensed psychologists • are trained to work with people with severe emotional disorders • are trained to help athletes with problems such as eating disorders and substance abuse.
Educational Sport Psychology Specialists • use mental coach approach—understand psychology of human movement. • have training in physical education, kinesiology, or exercise and sport science. • educate and increase athletes’ and coaches’ awareness of issues such as anxiety management and confidence development.
History of Sport and Exercise Psychology • Is sport and exercise psychology a relatively new field or does it have a long history? • What time periods exist in the history of sport and exercise psychology? • Who was Coleman Griffith? • What are some of the characteristics of contemporary sport and exercise psychology?
Science of Sportand Exercise Psychology A process, or method, of learning about the world through the systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience.
Goals of Science Theory derives from the following: • Describing • Explaining • Predicting • Controlling
Scientific Guidelines • Systematic • Controlled • Empirical • Critical
Scientific Study: Theory • A set of interrelated facts presenting a systematic view of some phenomenon in order to describe, explain, and predict its future occurrences • Example: Social facilitation theory
Studies Versus Experiments Study: The investigator observes or assesses without changing the environment in any way. Experiment: The investigator manipulates variables while observing them, then examines how changes in one or more variables affect changes in others.
Example of Study • A hundred runners complete a survey that assesses goal setting, imagery, and self-talk. (However, nothing is changed in the environment.) • The 20 fastest runners’ survey responses are compared against those of the 20 slowest.
Example of an Experiment • Runners are divided into two equal groups. • Experimental group receives training on setting goals, using imagery, and using positive self-talk. • The second (control) group receives no psychological skills training. (continued)
Example of an Experiment (continued) • Running times of both groups are measured. • If the experimental group outperforms the control group (with other factors that might affect the relation controlled), a cause–effect relationship is established. Key: The advantage of an experiment is that researchers are better able to determine causal (or cause-and-effect) relationships.
Understanding Professional Practice Knowledge Professional practice knowledge is what we learn through experience, using many methods of knowing.
Methods of Knowing • Scientific method • Systematic observation • Single case study • Shared (public) experience • Introspection • Intuition
Integrating Scientificand Professional Practice Knowledge • Apply scientific principles in your professional work setting. • Evaluate the utility of scientific principles in the particular context in which you are involved. (continued)
Integrating Scientificand Professional Practice Knowledge (continued) • Keep current by updating and modifying your scientific knowledge base. • Hold realistic expectations relative to the strengths and limitations of scientific principles.
Sport and Exercise Psychology as an Art and a Science • The science of coaching, teaching, or leadership focuses on using general scientific principles. • The art of coaching, teaching, or leadership is knowing when and how to individualize these general principles. Contextual intelligence is critical.
Three Approaches to Sport and Exercise Psychology • Psychophysiological orientation • Social–psychological orientation • Cognitive–behavioral orientation
Psychophysiological Orientation • Examines underlying psychophysiological processes of the brain in terms of primary causes of behavior. • Example: Biofeedback to trained marksmen
Social–Psychological Orientation • Behavior is determined by a complex interaction of the social environment and the personal makeup of the athlete or exerciser. • Example: How a leader’s style and strategies foster group cohesion
Cognitive–Behavioral Orientation • Behavior is determined by both the environment and thoughts (cognitions). • Example: Studying differences in confidence and anxiety among tennis players with or without burnout
The Present and Future of Sportand Exercise Psychology • More people are interested in acquiring training in psychological skills and applied work. • There is greater emphasis on counseling and clinical training for sport and exercise psychologists. • Ethics and competence issues are receiving greater emphasis. (continued)
The Present and Future of Sportand Exercise Psychology (continued) 4. Specialization and new subspecialties are developing. • Tension continues to exist between practitioners of academic and applied sport psychology. • Qualitative research methods are receiving more attention. (continued)
The Present and Future of Sportand Exercise Psychology (continued) 7. Applied sport psychologists have more work opportunities than ever but only limited chances for full-time positions. 8. Sport psychology is gaining increased acceptance and recognition of its usefulness. (continued)
The Present and Future of Sportand Exercise Psychology (continued) • The positive psychology movement in general psychology helps sport and exercise psychology expand into new areas such as business, music, and the performing arts. • Embracing the globalization of sport and exercise psychology is paramount for contemporary students of the field and will increase in years to come.
Ethical Standards for Sportand Exercise Psychologists • Competence. Maintain the highest standards in your work and recognize the limits of your expertise. • Integrity. Clarify roles and do not falsely advertise. • Professional and scientific responsibility. Always place the interests of clients first. (continued)
Ethical Standards for Sportand Exercise Psychologists (continued) • Respect for people’s rights and dignity. Respect such fundamental rights as privacy and confidentiality among clients. • Concern for the welfare of others. Always contribute to the welfare of those with whom you work. • Social responsibility. Contribute to knowledge and human welfare while always protecting participants’ interests.
Sport Psychology–Business Link • Lessons learned in high-performance sport can be applied to business. • The corporate athlete notion focuses on helping people in business reach their ideal performance states through use of principles of sport psychology and training. • Sustain high business performance through leadership development seminars, team-building activities, and one-on-one coaching.