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AP Psychology Review
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  1. AP Psychology Review Chapters 1-9

  2. History • Early Schools of Psychology • Structuralism • Functionalism • Associationism

  3. Structuralism • Wilhelm Wundt • First psychological “laboratory” in Leipzig, Germany • Introspection--”look inward” • Break consciousness into atomic sensations

  4. Functionalism • Rejected Structuralism • Figures: William James--Principles of Psychology, John Dewey • What do people do and Why

  5. Associationism • Ebbinghaus--Memory study • Thorndike-”Law of Effect” • Ivan Pavlov-classical conditioning (many place with behaviorism)

  6. Behaviorism • John Watson • “Little Albert” • Stimulus discrimination, stimulus generalization

  7. B.F.Skinner • Father of operant conditioning • Skinner Box

  8. Gestalt Psychology • Max Wertheimer • Kurt Koffka • Wolfgang Kohler--insight • Whole is greater than the sum of its parts • Figure-ground perception

  9. Cognitivism • Ulric Neisser-Cognitive Psychology • Serial processing vs parallel processing

  10. Biological Psychology • Roger Sperry • Split-brain research

  11. Evolutionary Psychology • Evolutionary bases for behavior • Mating preferences, etc • Leda Cosmides • David Buss

  12. Psychodynamic • Sigmund Freud • Father of the unconscious mind • Id, Ego, Superego • Dream interpretation • Defense mechanisms • Neo-Freudians

  13. Humanistic • Abraham Maslow-hiearchy of basic needs • Carl Rogers-unconditional positive regard

  14. Chapter 2 Research Methods Statistics

  15. Research Methods

  16. Experimental Method • Control and Experimental groups • Independent variable-administered to experimental group only • Dependent variable-measured in both experimental and control groups • Statistical significance to infer causality • Reject null hypothesis (IV has no effect)

  17. Experimental Design

  18. Double-blind and Placebo Researcher doesn’t know who is in what group

  19. Correlation • Looks at relationship between two variables • Positive correlation: Close to +1 • Negative correlation: Close to -1 • No correlation: Close to 0

  20. Research Ethics • Deception • Informed Consent • Debriefing • Confidentiality • Use of Pain • Use of Animals • IRB (Institutional Review Board)

  21. Statistics

  22. Descriptive Statistics • Information about one set of data • Mean • Median • Mode • Frequency distribution • Standard deviation • Normal distribution

  23. Normal Distribution • Mean=Median=Mode • If Mean>Median, Mode, then Positively skewed • If Mean<median, mode, then Negatively skewed

  24. Correlation & Regression • Correlation Coefficient: uses Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient • Scores from -1(perfect inverse relation) to 0 (no relation) to +1 (perfect positive relation) • DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION

  25. Inferential Statistics • Needs large population size for higher confidence • Sample should be representative • Goal: Reject null hypothesis • Null hypothesis--changes are due to chance and not independent variable

  26. Type I & Type II errors

  27. Chapter 3 Biological Bases for Behavior

  28. Central Nervous System • Brain • Spinal Cord

  29. Sensory Afferent neurons Interneuorons To spine Motor Efferent Neurons From spine

  30. Spinal Reflex Spinal cord acts alone Receives sensory afferent message Sends motor efferent message Brain gets message AFTER action

  31. Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Autonomic

  32. Somatic nervous system • Soma=Body • Skeletal/striated muscles • Conscious control

  33. Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary Non-skeletal muscles Sympathetic Parasympathetic

  34. Sympathetic Nervous System • STRESS • Catabolic--expends energy • Pupils dilate • Bronchi relax • Increase heart rate • Inhibits digestion • Contracts blood vessels

  35. Parasympathetic=PEACE Anabolic--stores energy Contracts pupils Bronchi constricts Slows heart rate Stimulates digestion Dilates blood vessels Return to homeostasis

  36. Some suggest that in today’s society we have an in stress related illnesses, like ulcers, heart disease, etc because we have an active sympathetic nervous system with little opportunity to physically release the energy to return to homeostasis. We can’t fight or flee our boss, work, school.

  37. Neurons

  38. The neuron communicates electrochemically It converts chemical energy to electrical energy to chemical energy

  39. Positive sodium ions (Na+) rush in, pushing out Potassium Ions (K+)

  40. Major Neurotransmitters

  41. Acetylcholine (Ach) • Memory-in hippocampus • Movement--PNS • Blocked in Alzheimer’s patients • Excitatory

  42. Dopamine • Movement • Attention • Learning • Pleasure--cocaine blocks reuptake • Too little--Parkinson’s disease • Too much--Schizophrenia

  43. Serotonin • Arousal • Sleep • Mood • Appetite • LSD inhibits serotonin (waking sleep)

  44. GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) • Inhibits axons-increasing threshold of excitation • Linked to seizures

  45. Neurotransmitter fun facts Curare (So. American poison dart frog) antagonist for A Ch. Causes paralysis