Homework • R-6 due Friday. • Test on the Renaissance / Reformation Friday. Multiple choice and full essay. • Complete the Questions to Consider to receive 2 points extra credit.
Aim: How did different groups in Europe respond to Martin Luther? May 20, 2014
I. Church Reaction to Luther • Luther is excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521 • Luther is called upon to stand trial in Worms by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (ruler of the Holy Roman Empire / Germany and Spain) → asked to recant his heretical ideas • Luther refuses, so Charles V issues the Edict of Worms declaring Luther an outlaw and a heretic. • Luther gains protection from Frederick of Saxony (German noble).
II. Reaction in Holy Roman Empire / Germany Germany was still a collection of disunified states during this period. Charles V is technically in control, but has little real power. The rulers of many of these German states side with Luther and convert to Protestantism. What’s in it for them? Ultimately, the northern states become Protestant, the southern states remain Catholic. Many German peasants also side with Luther and convert. However, when they rebel against their lords in 1524, Luther refuses to give his support.
II. Reaction in Holy Roman Empire / Germany D. Eventually, there is civil war in Germany between rulers who support Luther and rulers who are still loyal to Charles V. E. Compromise Solution: The Peace of Augsburg (1555). Rulers of each German state can decide what the religion of their state will be.
III. Rise of Calvinism → New Branch of Protestantism! • John Calvin writes Institutes of the Christian Religion – 1536. Agrees with Luther on many things, but also develops some new beliefs of his own. 1. Men and Women are sinful by nature 2. By God’s grace, a few people will be saved from sin (“the elect”) 3. God alone has always known who will be saved (“predestination”) → Humans can’t affect their own salvation!
III. Rise of Calvinism → New Branch of Protestantism! B. Calvin leads the community in Geneva, Switzerland (the elect must rule society to glorify God → theocratic government) C. Followers of Calvin in Scotland become Presbyterians → overthrow their Catholic queen to make Calvinism the official state religion in 1567.
IV. English Reformation A. King Henry VIII (1509-1547) wants to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon (she’s getting older and has not provided a male heir), and marry Anne Boleyn. He asks the Pope for a divorce. B. The Pope will not grant the divorce (Catherine is the aunt of Charles V, Pope doesn’t want to upset him!)
IV. English Reformation C. Henry breaks from the Catholic Church, makes England Protestant! Basically, everyone in England has to be Protestant so the king can get a divorce! D. Forces Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy (1534): This makes the English king, not the Pope, the official head of England’s new Protestant church (called the Anglican Church) E. Henry closes all English monasteries!
IV. English Reformation Henry VIII goes on to have six wives:
IV. English Reformation • After Henry VIII dies in 1547, each of his surviving children will take the throne: • Edward VI (1547-1553, Henry’s son with Jane Seymour): Only nine when he takes the throne. Protestants continue to gain power. • Mary I (1553-1558, Henry’s daughter with Catherine of Aragon): Makes England Catholic again, arrests and burns hundreds of Protestants (her nickname becomes “Bloody Mary”) • Elizabeth I (1558-1603, Henry’s daughter with Anne Boleyn): • Returns England to Protestantism and the Anglican Church. • Works to find compromises between Protestants and Catholics so everyone can be at peace. As a concession to Protestants, priests in the Anglican Church were allowed to marry. As a concession to Catholics, the Anglican church service would keep some of the trappings of a Catholic service (rich robes, golden crucifixes).
V. Counter-Reformation Efforts of the Roman Catholic Church to end corruption in the Church, stop the spread of Protestantism, and regain followers.
1. Pope Paul III calls a Council of Church Leaders = Council of Trent(1545-1563). It reaffirms some of the key beliefs of the Church: Pope as the head of the church Belief that Bible and religious law may only be interpreted by the Pope. Latin Bible as the only one which may be used. Still need faith and good works for salvation
2. The Council of Trent also makes the following changes: Sale of indulgences and Church offices prohibited Higher educational standards for the clergy More discipline over clergy (no more affairs and secret marriages!) Sermons may sometimes be preached in people’s languages
3. The Church uses tools of fear to expand its power: The Inquisition will be used in Catholic-dominated countries to detect and torture heretics. Some heretics will be burned at the stake. The Church sets up an Index of Prohibited Books: Books which could not be published, sold, or distributed because they might conflict with the teachings of the Catholic Church
4. Establish a Society of Jesusstarted by Ignatius Layola These clergymen, called Jesuits would have the job of winning back converts by: Setting up schools Going out as missionaries in Asia, Africa and the New World Acting as advisors to nobles and princes