Homework R-4 due tomorrow Multiple Choice Test on Rome Thursday.
Aim: How did Augustus pave the way for the PaxRomana? February 6, 2014
I. Rise of the Second Triumvirate (44 B.C. – 31 B.C.) • After Caesar is killed, Rome is taken over by the Second Triumvirate: • Octavian (Caesar’s nephew) • Antony (C’s ally/assistant) • Lepidus (C’s cavalry commander) • Lepidus dies, Octavian and Antony fight for power! • Battle of Actium (31 B.C.) - Octavian wins! • After gaining full power, Octavian takes the name Augustus (“the revered one”)
II. The Age of Augustus (31 B.C. – 14 B.C.) • Augustus becomes the first Emperor of Rome – Achieves absolute power: • Gives food and jobs to the poor • Keeps a standing army of 28 legions (150,000 men) • Extends the empire, builds more roads • Appoints legates (deputies) to oversee different regions in the empire. • After Augustus dies, his relatives are not great rulers → Solved by creating “system of adoption.”
III. PaxRomana (96 A.D. – 180 A.D. – Golden Age of the Roman Empire • Five “good” emperors:Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius • Maintain peace and prosperity, promote trade, extend the empire (pop of 50 million during this period!), build public works (aqueducts, roads, harbors), use government money to help the poor.
IV. Architecture- Like Greeks, interested in rows and columns.- Interest in curvilinear forms – arch, dome. - Structures made from concrete – strong and durable. - Cities had a grid-like set-up with wide streets.- 50,000 miles of paved roads connected the empire • Roads “ All ROADS lead to ROME!”
V. The Colosseum: Public amphitheater featuring Gladiatorial fights, circuses, chariot races. Day at the Arena: Trained gladiators fighting to the death, beast vs. beast, criminals killed by beasts “Bread and Circuses”
VI. Aqueducts: Tunnels, canals and otherstructures that carry water from place to place. Over 500 miles of aqueducts in the city of Rome. Usually built underground