Homework • MA #9 due Wednesday • Quiz on the Middle Ages Thursday (20 Multiple Choice – Byzantine Empire-MA #7). None of the new material we do this week will be on the quiz.
Aim: How did the development of the Holy Roman Empire differ from France and England? April 7, 2013
I. Establishment of the Holy Roman Empire (Germany today) • Otto I: German king of Saxony who defeats the Magyars and becomes a great hero. He is able to unite a large amount of German land, and this eventually becomes the Holy Roman Empire. • In 962, Otto is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope. Who is he following in the footsteps of, and why is this a good deal for both Otto and the Pope. • As Holy Roman Emperor, Otto believes that he has the right to select bishops and then appoint them to top government offices. How could this lead to conflict?
II. Holy Roman Empire under Hohenstaufen rulers A. Frederick I (Barbarossa): Holy Roman Emperor from 1155-1190. 1. Wants to gain military control over Northern Italian cities (Venice, Genoa). Why? 2. Northern Italians and the Pope join forces to oppose him (Lombard League). Frederick is defeated in 1176. Why is there so much opposition to Frederick?
II. Holy Roman Empire under Hohenstaufen rulers B. Frederick II: Holy Roman Emperor from 1220-1250 1. Pursued the same military ambitions as Frederick I. 2. Fails in taking over Northern Italy, has more disputes with the Pope.
Concluding Question • Ultimately, how did wars with the Italian city-states prevent the Holy Roman Empire from becoming a strong, unified nation-state?