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  1. Homework • MA #13 due Thursday • Middle Ages Test MOVED TO MONDAY 5/5 • 25 Multiple Choice Questions • 1 essay (you will have two choices)

  2. Aim: How did the rise of universities and the revival of learning lead to conflicts between faith and reason? Theme for the rest of this unit: How do certain events of the High (late) Middle Ages (1000s-1300s) help to bring the Medieval period in European history to a close and make the Renaissance possible?

  3. I. Rise of Universities in Europe • By the 1100s, need for education in Europe had expanded. 1. Supported by the Church 2. Supported by Rulers 3. Supported by wealthy middle class families

  4. I. Rise of Universities in Europe B. First schools sprang up around cathedrals to train clergy → evolved into the first universities C. First university in Bologna, Italy D. Students started with liberal arts: rhetoric, grammar, logic, arithmetic, geometry and music. E. Students pursued bachelor’s degrees (3-5 years) & master’s degrees (4-6) in the liberal arts. Eventually, they could get doctorates in law, medicine or theology.

  5. II. Revival of Learning • Literacy spreads → More people are reading popular literature in the vernacular • Troubadour Lit • Dante Alighierei’sThe Divine Comedy (1308-1321, Italian) • Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (late 1300s, English) B. With more educated people in Europe, there is renewed interest in the works of ancient scholars (Aristotle, Greek classics).

  6. III. Rise of Scholasticism • Scholasticism: Method of applying logical analysis to the Bible and its beliefs. Attempt to use Aristotle’s logical analysis/ scientific method and still keep faith in the Bible.

  7. III. Rise of Scholasticism B. Thomas Aquinas: Christian scholar of the mid 1200s who argued that there is no conflict between faith and reason. • Summa Theologica: Aquinas looks at 631 philosophical questions about God and the universe. For each one, he uses logic / reason to show the truth of the Church’s answer.

  8. Activity • Read the passage from Summa Theologicaby Thomas Aquinas (stop after the first paragraph) and answer the following questions: • In your own words, what is the basic argument Aquinas is making? • How does this passage demonstrate the philosophy of Scholasticism? • What does Scholasticism say about the abilities of human beings? How is this different from the way humans were viewed through most of the Middle Ages? • Scholasticism argues that faith and reason can go together? Do you agree with this? Why or why not?