Outline • Where was Persia? • Greeks fed up • Causes? • Persia wants to expand. • Miletus Rebels – with help of Athens • Persia Attacks Athens. • Marathon • Thermopylae • Salamis Bay • What made the Greeks so successful?
Mighty Empire of Persia (Iran) controls much of the Middle East and the Mediterranean. http://www.teachinghearts.org/dr0imappersia.gif
Causes of the wars • Underlying causes • Persia was a threat to other city-states because they were wanting to expand. • Greeks loved independence, this sparked a desire for freedom from a large empire. • The Persians wanted revenge. • Immediate causes • The Persians made advancements on Athens at Marathon as revenge.
Who was Persia? • They were the largest empire of all near east empires. Present day Iran. • Led by Cyrus the Great • It was a military state. • What is that? • Greatest military power in the world at the time. • They were a threat to Greek city-states because the city-states were small scattered units weakened by fighting among each other. (Were not prepared to fight a strong empire.)
Mighty Empire of Persia (Iran) controls much of the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Can you find Greece? http://www.teachinghearts.org/dr0imappersia.gif
Ionian Revolt • When Greece colonized, they set up several city-states along the coast of Asia Minor. Several people moved to Ionia. • There had not been any interference with them until 6th Century BC. • In 546 BC Cyrus invaded the area and now the Greek city-states in Asia Minor were under Persian control. • These city-states became important ports for the Persian Navy. • Even though the Greek city-states prospered because of this they did not like being dependant on a foreign power.
In 499 BC Greek colonies, led by Miletus, and city-states on Asia Minor revolt against Persia. Tired of paying tribute to Persia. Greece Miletus
Persian Wars Persian leader, Darius, sends huge Persian naval fleet of 600 vessels to attack and destroy Athens…. • Persian navy hit by huge storm…..loses over ½ fleet!?! • Darius You Greeks are lucky, we’ll get you! • Athens Sea Gods are on our side! http://www.carteretcountyschools.org/wchs/teachers/cwertz/images/Today'71.jpg
Colonies on Asia Minor asked Greece for help in fighting Persia. • Athens only polis (city state) to respond by sending their navy. Destroys Persian fleet. Sparta refused to help. • Persia eventually defeated the attack after 5 years, but never forgot the challenge to their authority. • Cyrus died (not known how) and his son Darius I took over. Wanted revenge on Athens.
BEFORE THE PERSIAN WAR • Athens finds silver mines and builds a great navy of triremes. • City-states pay Athens for protection. • Persia severely ticked off now. (They want revenge.)
Trireme An ancient Greek or Roman galley or warship, having three tiers of oars on each side. Trireme Trireme Bays
The War is Near • Darius planned for 9 years on how he would attack mainland Greece. • He started by taking over Thrace, Macedon and northern Greece. • Darius sent messengers throughout Greece to warn of a Persian attack, but the threats were ignored. City-states did not prepare. • Athens and Sparta agree to help the other if attacked. • 490 BC Persians cross the Aegean Sea and land on Greek soil with a fleet of 600.
Persian Wars http://www.geocities.com/ancientgreece2001/marathon.jpg Persians attack at the Plains of Marathon, near Athens
Persian Wars Plains of Marathon http://www.greecetaxi.gr/Marathon/Marathon01.JPG
Persian Wars • Athenians see the huge amount of ships and panic. • Send Pheidippides from the plains of Marathon to Sparta (125kms) for help. • “We’ll come when we’redone partying.” • Returns and drops dead. http://www.ananova.com/images/web/114098.jpg
Athenians • Heavily outnumbered • No cavalry • No archers • No allied support for many days…. • What to do…?
REASONS ATHENIANS WON! • They were protecting their own turf. • They had a great general named Militiades. • They had used “phalanx”.