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The Persian Wars

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  1. The Persian Wars Wars between Greeks and Persians in 5th century BC Roughly from 492 – 448 BC Two main invasions of Greece by Achaemenid kings of Persia Herodotus – primary historian

  2. Map pf Persian Empire

  3. Battle of Marathon • Ionian revolt and other battles • 490 BC - Darius I “The Great” sent about 25,000 men to plains of Marathon • Darius preceded by Cyrus the Great and Cambyses • 10,000 Athenians and Plataeans under Callinachus and Miltiades • First victory for Greeks

  4. Battle at Thermopylae • 480 BC • Xerxes – King of Persia, son of Darius I • 70,000 Persians bridged the Hellespont • 10,000 “Immortals” • Themistocles led navy at Athens • Athens and Sparta form alliance • Decide to defend at Thermopylae • Leonidas I and 300 Spartans and 1000 Boetians

  5. Map of Thermopylae invasion

  6. Battle of Salamis, also 480 BC • Athens evacuated after Thermopylae • Athens burned • Navy waiting around island Salamis • Themistocles’ ruse • Confined waters around Salamis • Egyptians, Phoenecians, Ionian Greeks • 40 Greek ships lost, 200 Persian ships lost • Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus

  7. Map of Battle of Salamis

  8. Battle of Plataea, 479 BC • Xerxes I had left a land army under Mardonius • Spartans and Athenians rode up • Met at isthmus of Corinth • Mardonius fled

  9. The DelianLeague, 478 BC • Ionian city-states joined for mutual protection • Treasuaryon island of Delos, Aristides leads Athens • Athens in charge due to naval supremacy • Pericles leads Athens during Golden Age • Parthenon, Long Walls built • Sparta captures Athens in 404 BC

  10. Peloponnesian Wars • Begins in 431 BC between Athens and Sparta • 429 BC – Pericles dies of plague • Three stage war • Most of Delian League sided with Sparta • 404 BC – Sparta wins war with defeat of Athenian navy at Aegospotami by Lysander with help from Persia • Lysander installs 30 rulers at Athens, later known as the “30 Tyrants”

  11. The Thirty Tyrants • Spartan hegemony • Long Walls destroyed • Athenian oligarchy appointed by Sparta led by Critias • Leading democrats exiled • Council of 500 were the judiciary • Only 3000 Athenian had citizenship • Many sentenced to hemlock

  12. End of Thirty Tyrants • Other city-states helped exiled democrats • Retook Piraeus by force • Sparta did not come to help • Democracy restored in 403 BC

  13. Rise of Macedonia • Philip II