Greco-Persian Wars • Ionian Revolt 498 BC– A revolt broke out on the Ionian Peninsula when Darius I started consolidating Persia's western conquests near the Aegean sea. • The Greek cities of Miletus and the island of Samos in Asia Minor under Persian control revolt against Persian rule. • The cities received help from mainland Greece mainly Athens. • Persians defeat Ionian Greeks after a 4 year revolt – then plan to invade mainland Greece. • Battle of Marathon 490BC- one of the largest and earliest recorded battles in classical antiquity, nearly 11,000 Athenians held their own against some 200,000 Persians. • Athens defeats Persian invasion. • Victory over the Persian invaders gave the fledgling Greek city states confidence in their ability to defend themselves • This battle is considered a defining moment in the development of European culture.
Greco-Persian Wars • Thermopylae 480 B.C – • A large Persian force of roughly 200,000 marched along the Aegean Sea into Greece. • This force was accompanied by a large navy • Soldiers from many Greek city states convened at the Isthmus of Corinth • chose to defend a narrow mountain pass called Thermopylae. • first two days the Greeks were very successful • a Persian force found a route around the pass • 300 Spartan and 700 Thespian soldiers volunteered to hold the pass • allow soldiers from other city-states flee in order to fight again.
Greco-Persian Wars • Salamis • turning point in the Greco-Persian War • showed the naval supremacy of Athens. • The Persian navy was utterly destroyed, leaving the ground troops with no support • Tactic- • Themistocles stationed Athenian ships in the Strait of Salamis. • Themistocles employed a tactic similar to Leonidas at Thermopylae. • aligned smaller , faster ships across the strait • the straight was narrow, and very few of the larger Persian ships could go through at a time, much like the mountain pass at Thermopylae. • the faster Greek triremes could outmaneuver and sink the Persian ships • this was achieved by the trireme spearing the hull with a large ram on the front
Greco-Persian Wars • Plataea • the Persian army retreated from Thermopylae and met at the city-state of Plataea • Xerxes had returned to Persia, and left his top general Mardonius in command • the Greeks had pulled many more city states into the alliance • The Greek and Persian armies were equal in size • over 100,000 each • The Greeks destroyed the Persian force • about 1,000 Greeks were killed • Only 43,000 Persians survived and Mardonius was killed in the battle