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The Persian Wars

The Persian Wars

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The Persian Wars

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  1. The Persian Wars

  2. Persian Wars Basics • When: 499-479 BCE • Who: Allied Greek city states v. the Persian Empire

  3. Persia • Largest empire the world had ever seen • Ruled by powerful kings

  4. Before the War • When? 546 BCE • Persia conquers the Greeks along the Ionian coast and force them to pay tribute (taxes) to the Persian Empire 546 BCE: This belongs to Persia now haha!

  5. Ionian Revolt • When: 499 BCE Ionians asked the naval power of Athens to help them gain independence • Athens sends a fleet and wins a quick victory and then goes home • Ionians are left to fight for themselves • By 493 BCE the Persians had defeated the Ionians

  6. Greek Soldier Helmet with face guard and plume Long spear Wooden circular shield Bronze chest armour Greek warriors were known as hoplites. They fought in groups called phalanxes. Greaves (leg armour)

  7. Phalanx • Central Idea: Group is more important than the individual • Each person has a shield and a spear • The shield cover themselves and the person to their left

  8. Greek Trireme Sail Group of hoplites Rowers below deck Bronze battering ram Three rows of oars Greek warships were known as triremes. The name trireme means ‘a ship with three rows of oars’. Long slim hull for speed

  9. Battle of Marathon • 490 BCE • Athenian army had to fight alone • Tricked the Persian army into a position where there could attack on three sides • Phalanx formation proved effective against Persian foot soldiers

  10. Pheidippedes Run • Ran 150mi journey from Marathon to Sparta in 2 days to ask for help • Sparta said no • Also said to have run the 26mi from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory! • Then he died  • Modern Marathons use this number of miles

  11. Xerxes Attacks • King Darius dies in 490 and his son Xerxes takes over • Launches a new invasion of Greece in 480 BCE • Crosses the Hellespont (literally Bridge of Greece) known today as the Dardanelles • Ropes hundreds of boats together to cross the water

  12. Battle of Thermopylae • Greeks needed to slow the Persian Army down so that it did not get to Athens so quickly • Thermopylae was a narrow pass through the mountains • A traitor betrayed the Greeks and showed the Persians a way around the pass • Persians attacked from the rear

  13. Battle Outcome • King Leonidas of Sparta sent most of the 7,000 Greek troops ahead to Athens to save them • 300 Spartan soldiers fought to the death to slow down the Persians • Gave Athens enough time to get 200 ships ready for battle

  14. Battle of Salamis • Greek fleet of triremes attacked the Persian fleet at the strait of Salamis • Strait: narrow strip of water between two pieces of land

  15. Battle Outcome • Greek ships were smaller and faster and could turn better in tight spaces • Persian fleet was practically destroyed • Persians then attacked Athens & burned it down

  16. Battle of Plataea (479 BCE) • Largest army of Greek soldiers ever • By working together, the city-states defeated Persia • Persians went back to Asia Minor in defeat

  17. Importance of the Persian Wars • Athens, Sparta, and other Greek city-states came together to fight Persia • Athenian victories at Marathon & Salamis left Athens in control of the Aegean Sea • Athens was not conquered so it continued to make innovations in the field of government and learning