The Persian Wars Ms. Anderson Social Studies 10
How it all began Cyrus the Great By the beginning of the 5th century BCE, the Persian Empire stretched from modern-day Afghanistan to the Mediterranean Sea. It was lead by Cyrus the Great. Greece, on the other hand, was made up of scattered city-states that were constantly fighting among themselves. This made them an easy target for attack.
Prelude to War In 499 BCE, the Greek city state of Miletus lead a revolt against the Persians. This is known as the Ionian Revolt. Despite the support of several Greek city-states (including Athens), the Persians destroyed Miletus five years later.
Three Major Battles • The three battles that had the largest impact on the Persian War were: • Marathon • Thermopylae • Salamis
Marathon In 490 BCE, the Persians had a new king, Darius, who was determined to punish Athens for their role in the Ionian Revolt.
Marathon • Pheidippides ran the distance in two days, got the message from the Spartans and ran back. According to legend, as soon as he delivered the message (Sparta would help after the next full moon) he collapsed dead. • This is were we get the term marathon for long-distance running competitions This battle is best known for the efforts of one man: Pheidippides. Militades, sent him to Sparta for help against the Persians. The problem: Sparta was 250km away.
Marathon The Greeks were outnumbered greatly, but they had a strategy to defeat the Persians. 1. They knew that the Persians had their strongest forces on the center of their formation. 2. Because of this, the Greeks decided to focus their strength on the wings. This left the Persians trapped on both sides, forcing them back of the shore.
Thermopylae & Salamis: Persian War Assignment Part B: Outline the events that marked the end of the Persian Wars. 5 marks Total: 15 marks • Part A: Using pages 142 and 144 of the textbook, give detailed descriptions about the battles of Thermopylae and Salamis. Include the following details. • Who (which city-states, lead by who)? 2 marks • Strategies used by the Greeks 3 marks • Who was victorious and why? 2 marks • Create a diagram, like the one used for Marathon, to show how the events of the battle occurred. 3 marks