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THEORIES & PRACTICE of TEFL

THEORIES & PRACTICE of TEFL

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THEORIES & PRACTICE of TEFL

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  1. THEORIES & PRACTICE of TEFL Director:Professor Mavis Shang Name & ID:Xavier, Wu 9610008M Name & ID:Roger, Yu 9610009M Date:10/18/2007 Dept. of Applied English of I.S.U.

  2. LISTEN UP!

  3. Aural Comprehension Instruction • Introduction • Aspects of listening in L.T. & L.L. • Principles of listening in L.T. & L.L. • Extensive & Intensive Listening • Skills and Strategies • Listening Lesson Sequences • Time of Q AND A

  4. Introduction –The Importance of Listening • A Fundamental Skill • A Vehicle for Teaching of Grammatical Structure and Vocabulary • The More Opportunities of Using • The Best Way for Language Input • Establish on Different Stages • Extend Learners’ Vocabulary

  5. Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L.(1) • Four Models of Listening— Role and Purpose • Listening and Repeating#6 • Listening and Answering#7 • Task Listening#8 • Interactive Listening#9

  6. Model 1: Listening & Repeating

  7. Model 2: Listening & Answering

  8. Model 3: Task Listening

  9. Model 4: Interactive Listening

  10. Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L.(2) • Three Modes of Communicative Listening—ActiveReceptive Skill • Bidirectional Listening Mode.#11 • Unidirectional Listening Mode. #12 • Autodirectional Listening Mode.#13 • Implication for Instruction. • In both of the Two-way mode & One-way mode. • Self-dialogue should be used connection both of them.#27

  11. Bidirectional Listening Mode • Two-way communicative listening • Learners take turns exchanging Speaker Role and Listener Role in face-to-face or telephone interaction.#10

  12. Unidirectional Listening Mode • One-way communicative listening • Input comes from the sources of overheard conversation, public performances, telephone answering, the media. • Hearing but are unable to interact →Analyze what we hear→Talk to ourselves in a reaction#10

  13. Autodirectional Listening Mode • Self-dialogue communicative listening • Internal roles: Speaker and Listener/ Reactor in our own thought processes. • Re-create language internally →Listening again →Retell and Relive communication.#10

  14. Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L (3) • Psychosocial Function of Listening • Transactional Language Function.#15 • Interactional Language Function. #16 • Implication for Instruction.#27 • Providing exercises in both TLF Talk AND ILF Talk. • Two functions may be Intertwined. • Instructions→ Listening→ Recognize→ Respond

  15. Transactional Language Function • Message Oriented—Clarity& Precision • For Instructions, Directions, Explaining, Describing, Inquiring, Requiring, Checking on correctness of detail. • Business-typeTalk • Focus oncontent and conveying factual or propositional information.#14

  16. Interactional Language Function • Person Oriented—Identify& Respect • For identifying with other person’s concerns, maintaining and respecting “Face”. • Social-typeTalk • Focus oncasual conversation.#14

  17. Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L (4) • Psychosocial Processes of Listening • Bottom-Up Processes.#18 • Top-Down Processes. #19 • Implication for Instruction. #20 • Interactional: to interact with teacher and student. • Transactional: to assimilate new input of information, concepts, and skills. • Purpose, Background knowledge, and Topic.#27

  18. Bottom-Up Processes • Aural ComprehensionProcess—Attention to Every DetailInput • Understanding of the “heard” process Sound→ Words→ Grammatical Structure→ Lexical meaning. • Bottom to Top • Base on incoming language data.#17

  19. Top-Down Processes • Aural Comprehension Process—Prior information about task of understanding • Internal sources: Prior knowledge and global expectation about language. • Top to Down • Prediction and Inference→ Bypass Bottom-to-Top processing.#17

  20. Richard’s Function & Processes Interactional Bottom-Up#21Top-Down#22 Transactional#17

  21. Ex: Bottom-Up Mode • Cell 1: • Listening closely to a joke(Interactional)in order to know when to laugh. #20 • Cell 3: • Listening closely toinstruction(transactional)during a first lesson.#20

  22. Ex: Top-Down Mode • Cell 2: • Listening casually to cocktail party talk(Interactional). #20 • Cell 4: • Experienced air traveler listeningcasually to verbal air safety instructions (Transactional)which have new concepts, and acquire new skills.#20

  23. Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L (5) • Affective Domain—Attitudinal Information & Emotional Information • Linguistic Cue for Affect • Linguistic Messages#24 • Nonlinguistic Cue for Affect • Paralinguistic Message#25 • Extralinguistic Messages#25 • Intellectual, Emotional, and Moral Attitudes#26

  24. Linguistic Cue for Affect • Linguistic Messages • Choosing words • Arranging words into sentences • Being dialogue discourse Ex: • That was an (interesting/excellent /good/fair/so-so/terrible) movie. • I like him a lot but… • Even though she’s my best friend, I must tell you that…#23

  25. Nonlinguistic Cue for Affect • Paralinguistic Messages • Voice is used in speaking transmits meaning by different ways. • Vocal elements: tone, rate, rhythm, stress.#9 • Extralinguistic Messages • Body language transmitted words and vocal information. • Elements: postures,movements, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, talking space.#23

  26. Nonlinguistic Cue for Affect • Intellectual Attitudes • Expression & Comprehension: agreement/disagreement; confirming/denying; accepting/ declining; forgetting/ remembering; possibility/ impossibility; capability/ incapability; uncertainly; obligation; permission. • Emotional Attitudes • Moral Attitudes#23

  27. Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L (6) • Listening as a Language Act • Information Processing #10 • Linguistic Functions #14 • Dimensions of Cognitive processing #17

  28. Principles of Listening Teaching(1) • Three Materials Development Principles. • Relevance—content andoutcome#29 • Transferability/Applicability—canbe used in other courses. #30 • Task orientation—combine language use tasks and language analysis activities.#31

  29. Relevance • Content • The information input. • Outcome • Natural use of the information. • Face Validity for Students • Encouraging the intention to learn.#11

  30. Transferability/Applicability • Content Level or Outcome Level • Can be used in other courses • Foster Transfer of Training • The mirror of real life by activities. • Radio • Television new • Broadcast#11

  31. Task Orientation(1) • Language Use Tasks • Listen-and-Do communicative outcomes • Listening and performing actions • Listening and performing operation • Listening and solving problems • Listening and transcribing • Listening and summarizing information • Interactive listening and Q/A routines

  32. Task Orientation(2) • Language Use Tasks • A base on Content Experiences • Increase vocabulary • Increase predictive ability including Schemata and Scripts. • A base on Operational Experiences • Acquire ability of familiar information-handling operations.

  33. Task Orientation(3) • Language Analysis Activities • The opportunities to analyze selected aspects. • Language Structure—Form • Language Use—Function • To develop personal strategies. • Knowledgeable

  34. Task Orientation(4) • Specific Language Analysis Activities • Analysis of task of fast speed. • Analysis of phrasing and pause point. • Analysis monologues and dialogue exchange. • Describing and analysis sociolinguistic dimensions. • Describing and analysis communicative strategies.#28

  35. TIMEfor THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION Q and A See you next week

  36. Principles of Listening Teaching(2) • Communicative Outcomes—AnOrganizing Framework • Listening and Performing Actions and Operations.#37 • Listening and Transferring Information.#38 • Listening and Solving Problems.#39

  37. Communicative Outcome(1) • Listening and Performing Actions and Operations—Responsesto Directions/Instructions/Descriptions • Drawing something. • A map task. • Selecting work. • Performing a movement. • Operating a piece of equipment. • Carrying out steps in a process.#36

  38. Communicative Outcome(2) Listening and Transferring Information— • Spoken-to-Written • Taking a message and transferring to another person. • Listening and filling in blanks. • Listening and completing a form or chart. • Listening and • Carrying out steps in a process. • Listening to a how to talk and writing. • Listening to a speech and taking a note. • Spoken-to-Spoken • Listening to directions and passing them. • Listening to part of story and repeating it to others.#36

  39. Communicative Outcome(3) • Listening and Solving Problems— Games and Puzzles • Words games. • Number games and story. • Asking questions. • careful listening to the completion of the game. • listening story and settle solutions. • A jigsaw mystery. • Comparison shopping task. • Short descriptions of court case.#36

  40. Principles of Listening Teaching(3) • Communicative Outcomes— AnOrganizing Framework • Listening, Evaluating, and Manipulating Information.#41 • Interactive listening-and-Speaking.#42 • Listening for Enjoyment, Pleasure, and Sociability.#43

  41. Communicative Outcome(4) • Listening, Evaluating, and Manipulating Information— Evaluate and Manipulate • Receiving information and answer questions. • Evaluating information. • Evaluating arguments. • Evaluating cause-and effect information. • Summarizing or gist of information. • Evaluate and combining or considering information. • Evaluating and extending information. • Organizing unordered information.#40

  42. Communicative Outcome(5) • Interactive listening-and-Speaking—produce and process • Repetition—Question Asking • Paraphrase—Different Restatement • Verification—Confirmation • Clarification—Explanation • Elaboration—Additional Information • Extension—For New Point • Challenge—Conclusion#40

  43. Communicative Outcome(6) • Listening for Enjoyment, Pleasure, and Sociability— Teacher-talk and Student-talk • Songs • Stories • Plays • Poems • Jokes • Anecdotes • Interesting chat#40

  44. Extensive& IntensiveListening • Comparison of the Locations #45 • Comparison of the Materials #46 • Comparison of the Advantages #47 • Comparison of the Disadvantages #48 • Comparison of Roles of the Teachers

  45. Location #44

  46. Material #44

  47. Procedure of Using Tape Material • Prediction and Gist Task—First Listening • Listen the Tape • Give a Task—Get Information and Listen. • Return the Tape—Detail Comprehension, and Language Analysis. • Play again—If Students Want to do. #46

  48. Advantages #44

  49. Disadvantages #44

  50. Roles of Teachers #44