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Organizational Change Theories. Closed Systems Structuralism Open Systems Contingency Theories Conflict Theories Critical Theories Resistance Theories Diffusion Theories Connectivism Theories Chaos Theories. Machine Theory. Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management—

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Organizational change theories
Organizational Change Theories

  • Closed Systems

  • Structuralism

  • Open Systems

  • Contingency Theories

  • Conflict Theories

  • Critical Theories

  • Resistance Theories

  • Diffusion Theories

  • Connectivism Theories

  • Chaos Theories


Machine theory
Machine Theory

  • Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management—

    • scientific method to improve productivity,

    • optimizing tasks,

    • simplifying jobs,

    • Specializing

    • Time Studies – most efficient way to perform a job

    • initiatives and incentives increase productivity

    • Reorganized from the bottom up (task to manager)


Machine theory1
Machine Theory

  • Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management—

    • 4 Principles

    • Replace rule of thumb work with task studies

    • Scientifically train & develop worker

    • Cooperate with workers to ensure efficiency

    • Divide work equally between managers & workers so managers could plan as workers worked


Machine theory2
Machine Theory

  • Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management—

    • Drawbacks

    • Increase in monotony of work

    • Missing from job – skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback

    • Dehumanizing


Machine theory3
Machine Theory

  • Fayol – Administrative Theory

  • Reorganized from the top-down

    • Formalized studies general guidelines for the worker

    • Hierarchical pyramid structure of control

    • Superiors and subordinates—chain of command

    • Departmentalization groups related by process, purpose, or place

      Organization is a machine to produce a product as efficient as possible.


Machine theory4
Machine Theory

  • Max Weber (1900)

  • Bureaucracy Theory

    • Ideal bureaucracy has hierarchy

    • Impersonal

    • Written rules of conduct

    • Promotion based on achievement

    • Division of labor for efficiency

    • Goal oriented

    • Draw back  relied on benevolence of superiors


Hr motivational theories
HR & Motivational Theories

  • Elton Mayo

  • Hawthorne Studies

    • Work is a group activity

    • Need for recognition, security and sense of belonging

    • Complaints revolve around sense of status

    • Group collaboration must be planned and developed to develop cohesion to resist disruptions

      Organization is a social group or work team


Hr motivational theories1
HR & Motivational Theories

  • Abraham Maslow (1940s)

  • 5 Needs

    • Physiological

    • Safety

    • Love

    • Esteem

    • Self-actualization or self-fulfillment

      • The urge to create, produce, for job satisfaction

      • Management should meet the upper needs


Hr motivational theories2
HR & Motivational Theories

  • Douglas McGregor “The Human Side of Enterprise” (1960) 2 types of managerial assumptions (Theory X & Y)

    • Theory X Assumptions

    • Humans have a dislike for work – must be controlled or threatened to do work

    • Most people want direction, dislike responsibility, desires security above all else

    • Most people need to know what is expected of them and be held accountable.


Hr motivational theories3
HR & Motivational Theories

  • Douglas McGregor “The Human Side of Enterprise” (1960) 2 types of managerial assumptions (Theory X & Y)

    • Theory Y Assumptions

    • Work is a natural state for humans

    • Man can direct his own steps if he is committed to the goals of the organization—if explained fully & grasps vision

    • If the job is satisfying, people will be committed

    • Most men seek responsibility

    • Creativity and ingenuity can be used by employees to solve problems

    • Most people have a lot more potential than they are given the opportunity to use.


Hr motivational theories4
HR & Motivational Theories

  • Frederick Herzberg

  • 2 Factor Hygiene & Motivation Theory

    • Hygiene Theory

    • Job environment, the company, policies, administration, kind of supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, and security


Hr motivational theories5
HR & Motivational Theories

  • Frederick Herzberg

  • 2 Factor Hygiene & Motivation Theory

    • Motivation Theory

    • Job Opportunities – achievement, recognition, growth / advancement

    • Interest in the job

      Both approaches must be done simultaneously. Treat people as best you can AND

      Use them in jobs where they can achieve and grow


Hr motivational theories6
HR & Motivational Theories

  • Lewins – Informal groups


Structuralism bridge between open closed systems 1930 70s
Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)

  • Political struggle between rational and irrational


Structuralism bridge between open closed systems 1930 70s1
Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)

  • Chester Bernard (1938)

  • The Functions of the Executive

  • Recycled Spencer’s Organismic Perspective

  • Organizations exist by cooperation, willingness of workers, contributions toward a common purpose

  • Management creates the goals & Moral Imperative that binds workers to collective good


Structuralism bridge between open closed systems 1930 70s2
Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)

  • Philip Selznick & Institutionalism

  • Resurrects Machine Theory with a twist

  • Organization strikes bargains with its environment that change the present objectives

  • Organization has such personality that reflects social needs and pressures (adaptation) from the environment

  • Operative Goals – what it does

  • Professed Goals – what it says it does (preparing students for the future)


Selznick 1996
Selznick (1996) (1930-70s)

  • Organizations seek “legitimacy” to justify what they do.

    • They tend to seek similarity for legitimacy

      • Coercive Isomorphism—forced to act a certain way by either another organization (TEA) or cultural expectations – my school had doors & windows

      • Mimetic Isomorphism—copy each other when they are uncertain what to do

      • Normative Isomorphism—everyone takes the same training and interact professionally


Structuralism bridge between open closed systems 1930 70s3
Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)

  • Ralph Stogdill (1948) -Tautological

  • 124 Characteristics of Leaders

  • Capacity (intelligence, alertness)

  • Achievement (scholarship, knowledge)

  • Responsibility (dependable, initiative)

  • Participation (active, social, cooperative)

  • Status (socio-economic, position, popularity)

  • Situation (mental level, status, skills)


Structuralism bridge between open closed systems 1930 70s4
Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)

  • McCall & Lombardo (1983) Anti-Traits

  • Insensitive to others (abrasive, bully)

  • Cold, aloof, arrogant

  • Betrayal of trust

  • Overly ambitious: thinking of next job,

  • Specific performance problems

  • Over-managing – unable to delegate

  • Unable to think strategically

  • Unable to adapt

  • Over-dependent on a mentor


Open system theory
Open-System Theory (1930-70s)

  • Katz & Kahn(1978)

  • Organization’s adaptive interaction with changing environment emphasized: goal is survival

  • Organization is active system=

    • Input

    • Throughput

    • output

      Organization is a living organism


Open systems 1960s
Open Systems (1960s) (1930-70s)

  • Open systems are made up of subsystems that create homeostatsis for the organism. Mapping the environment requires sensing and assigning meaning to symbolic Information

  • Imprints parts of the environment onto the organization.

  • Symbolic  Motivation & Communication

  • Feedback allows system to change goals “on the fly”


Open systems 1960s1
Open Systems (1960s) (1930-70s)

  • Harold Leavitt (1964)

  • 4 subsystems

  • Tasks—processes performed in system

  • Structure—organization, governed

  • Technology—type of equipment, knowledge, methods

  • Humans—skills, attitudes, roles, motivators


Open systems 1960s2
Open Systems (1960s) (1930-70s)

  • Daniel Katz & Robert Kahn(1966)

  • 5 subsystems

  • Technology—production

  • Managerial

  • Supportive –interact with environment for influx of energy

  • Maintenance—forces of stability

  • Adaptive—forces devoted to change


Open systems 1960s3
Open Systems (1960s) (1930-70s)

  • John Seiler’s (1967)

  • Forces in the environment

  • Internal

    • Inputs

    • Outputs

    • Actual behaviors


Open systems 1960s4
Open Systems (1960s) (1930-70s)

  • Getzel-Guba Model morphed

  • Environment

    • CommunitiesCollectivesNorms, Values

  • Social System (school)

    • GroupsIndividual

    • Interdependencies  personalities

    • Role expectationNeeds

      School’s Response


Open systems 1960s5
Open Systems (1960s) (1930-70s)

  • Getzel-Guba Model morphed

  • Carol Shakeshaft & Irene Nowell (1984) argued that GG Model did not describe the reality of the feminine experience – especially with role expectations “keepers of the private realm”


Open systems 1960s6
Open Systems (1960s) (1930-70s)

  • Getzel-Guba Model morphed

  • Environment

    • CommunitiesCollectivesNorms, Values

  • Social System (school)

    • GroupsIndividual

    • Interdependencies  personalities

    • Role expectationNeeds

      School’s Response


Open systems 1960s7
Open Systems (1960s) (1930-70s)

  • Process Theoryinteractive processes that underlie motivation

  • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

  • Valency=Effort + Expectancy +Choice


Flow of information
Flow of Information (1930-70s)

  • Machine Theory – bottom up

  • Bureaucracy Theory – top down

  • HR – horizontal and vertical inside organization

  • Structuralism – depending on leadership traits

  • Open systems – horizontal & vertical both inside and outside the organization, loop-backs

  • J.G. Miller’s Information Overload


Flow of information1
Flow of Information (1930-70s)

  • J.G. Miller’s Information Overload

    • Results in

      • Omission

      • Error

      • Queuing

      • Filtering

      • Approximation

        Siemen’s Connectivists Theory of hyper processing & multitasking.


Contingency theory
Contingency Theory (1930-70s)

  • Positivistic

  • Nomothetic—law-like regularities

  • Methodologically positivistic – empirical research (measures variables & statistical analysis)

  • Structure measured by material factors rather than idealistic factors

  • Deterministic –required responses

  • Consciously scientific style


Contingency theory 1960 70s
Contingency Theory (1960-70s) (1930-70s)

  • Generalizable relationship between organizational and environmental contingencies, organizational structure, and leadership.

  • Organizational contingencies include size, task structure, environmental factors – usually uncertainty

  • The leader’s job is to alter the organizational structure to keep the system in sync with environmental contingencies

  • Lawrence & Lorsch (1967)


Contingency theory 1960 70s1
Contingency Theory (1960-70s) (1930-70s)

  • Lawrence & Lorsch (1967)

  • Differentiation of

  • specialists

    • Predictable environments foster stable craftsmen

    • Generalists are required for unstable environments

  • Space – depts in different locations

  • Structure /Leadership Styles

  • Size


Contingency theory 1960 70s2
Contingency Theory (1960-70s) (1930-70s)

  • Structure /Leadership Styles


Conflict theory
Conflict Theory (1930-70s)


Critical theory
Critical Theory (1930-70s)


Innovation diffusion change theory
Innovation, Diffusion, Change Theory (1930-70s)

  • Hargreaves & Fullen (1996) change is “messy”

  • Everett Rogers:

  • Process of distributing innovation through a social system – communication-based model

  • Community of Teachers (not learners) seem to share superficial tricks or tips but not deep investigations into issues of teaching, learning and the profession.


Diffusion formal informal communities
Diffusion formal & Informal Communities (1930-70s)

  • Everett Rogers (1995) Diffusion of Innovations

  • Example: Self-organizing virtual learning communities versus the processes in bounded learning communities

  • 4-Elements Present

  • The new idea – innovation

  • Communication channels

  • Time

  • Social System engaged in joint problem solving activities to accomplish goals


Diffusion theory rogers
Diffusion Theory - Rogers (1930-70s)

  • Innovations as perceived by individuals

  • Relative advantage – better than what we are doing?

  • Compatibility-consistent with existing values, needs

  • Complexity—difficult to understand or use?

  • Trialability –is it used on a limited basis

  • Observability – do we see results?

  • Support – time, energy, resources, political backing


Diffusion process rogers
Diffusion Process -- Rogers (1930-70s)

  • E.M. Rogers(1995) Diffusion of Innovations

  • 5-Step Adoption Process

  • Awareness --knowledge

  • Interest--persuasion

  • Decision—engages in activity

  • Trial /Implementation

  • Confirmation -- Adoption


Diffusion process
Diffusion Process (1930-70s)

  • Rate of Adoption

  • Perceived attributes of innovation

  • Type of innovation-decision

  • Communication channels

  • Nature of the social system

  • Extent of change agents’ promotion efforts


Tipping point
Tipping Point (1930-70s)

  • The concept of the tipping point is the build-up of small changes that effect a big change

  • Stickiness Factor –staying power of an innovation –keeping one’s attention

  • Internet’s greatest economy is in fact, attention.


Fullen miles 1992 7 reasons reform fails in schools
Fullen & Miles (1992) 7 reasons reform fails in Schools (1930-70s)

  • Faulty ‘Change Maps” – to be unique is not a good reason for change

  • Complex Problems

  • Symbols over substance – adopt external innovations with only symbolic benefit – CC! Not enough grass-roots support

  • Impatient and Superficial Solutions

  • Misunderstanding Resistance –may be a learning curve issue

  • Attrition of Pockets of success

  • Misuse of Knowledge of Change Process


Fullen miles 1992 7 reasons reform succeeds in schools
Fullen & Miles (1992) 7 reasons reform succeeds in Schools (1930-70s)

  • Change is learning

  • Change is a journey not a blueprint – planning is continuous

  • Problems are our friends—assertive problem-solving must take place

  • Change is Resource Hungery—time & $$

  • Change requires Power to manage

  • Change is Systemic – interrelational, structure, policy, culture

  • Implemented locally—cannot happen from a distance


Fullen miles 1992 other reasons reform succeeds in schools
Fullen & Miles (1992) other reasons reform succeeds in Schools

  • Common language,

  • Conceptual picture—of change process and goals

  • Multiple stakeholders at different levels participate in reform process

  • Culture is a priority – relationships must improve to create conditions to share ideas

  • Sharing of successes and failures

  • Change is inevitable and we must learn to live with it.


Berkman s uoid theory
Berkman’s UOID Theory Schools

  • Influenced by Rogers

  • Berkmans User-Oriented Instructional Designers theory

  • Identify the potential adopter

  • Measure the potential adopters perceptions

  • Design & develop a user-friendly product

  • Inform the potential adopter

  • Provide post adoption support

    (Burkman in Gagne, 1987, pp 440-1) – this was our model for the TARGET grant –Line Coaches—relationship between developer & adopter was critical


Rogers 1962 1995
Rogers (1962, 1995) Schools

  • Adoption Categories explored

    • Innovators

    • Early adopters—visionary users, project oriented, risk takers, self-sufficient, cross-curricular communication can integrate

    • Early majority—pragmatic users, process oriented, may require support, departmental

    • Late majority

    • Laggards


Concerns based adoption model cbam hall hord
Concerns-based Adoption Model (CBAM) --Hall & Hord Schools

  • Hall & Hord (1987) macro level theory of diffusion

  • Bottom-up, systemic change

  • Framework includes “stages of concern”

  • 7-Stages


7 stages hord
7 Stages Hord Schools

  • Awareness –TCEA, Research, Vendors

  • Informational—Like to know more

  • Personal –how will it affect them?

  • Management—processes & tasks (information & resources)

  • Consequence – impact students?

  • Collaboration—teachers cooperate with others in implementing innovation

  • Refocusing—thinking of additional alternatives that might work better ready to move on


Strategies addressing concerns
Strategies Addressing Concerns Schools

  • Clarify problem, arouse interest, let them generate possible solutions

  • Give clear info about change, show how change is similar or diff from current

  • Validate and legitimize concerns, reinforce, connect to supports

  • Break the change into manageable steps, “how to”, give practical solutions to logistical problems


Strategies addressing concerns1
Strategies Addressing Concerns Schools

5. Arrange visits to places that use the change, provide positive feedback & dialog

6. Monitor --Provide encouragement, help refine ideas

7.Develop PR campaigns, broadcast or market innovation--conferences


J m keller s motivation model for instructional design
J.M.Keller’s Motivation Model for Instructional Design Schools

ARCS Model

  • ATTENTION – arouse & sustain learner’s curiosity

  • Relevance – Need to relate Instruction to Learner’s Needs

  • Confidence – Need to Match Learner’s Challenges to Learner’s Capabilities

  • Satisfaction—Need to provide learner with Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards


Resistance theory
Resistance Theory Schools

  • Michael Fullen’s (2003) “The moral imperative of school leadership” change is “messy”

    • Rests on a “change agent”

    • Creating Knowledge with stakeholders builds Relationships which is critical

    • Integrating Technology

    • Moral purpose


Resistance theory1
Resistance Theory Schools

  • Michael Fullen’s (2003) “The moral imperative of school leadership” change is “messy”

    Six-point Strategic model of transforming leadership

    • Reshape Culture by building a community of professional learners – capacity building

    • Change the context, then you can change behavior – move from one grade or subject

    • Mutual Vision – high expectations

    • Disciplined Inquiry – data-driven decision making

    • Moral purpose—desire to do the right thing & the wish to make a difference

    • Responsibility – teacher – leaders & collaborators


Kotter s 8 stage change process
Kotter’s 8 Stage Change Process Schools

  • 1996-2002

  • Establish a sense of urgency

    • Opportunities /crisis demand change NOW

  • Create a Guiding Team

    gather change agents with credibility, skills, authority to assist in the change

  • Develop a vision & Strategy

    • Clear uplifting statement of goal & plan

  • Communicate the Change Vision

    • Clear, uplifting, repeated messages


Kotter s 8 stage change process1
Kotter’s 8 Stage Change Process Schools

  • 1996-2002

  • Empower Organizational Members

    • Remove obstacles, change structures

    • Reward new ideas & risk-taking

  • Generate Short-term Wins

    • Early success is critical

    • Celebrate & reward people

  • Consolidate Gains & Continue Change

    • Don’t let up!

  • Anchor New Ways into the Culture

    • Make change stick


Lewin s change model
Lewin’s Change Model Schools

  • Unfreezing

    • Diagnose need for change, status quo no longer acceptable

    • Prepare people & plan change

  • Moving

    • Implement changes

    • Overcome resistance

  • Refreezing

    • Institutionalize new ways


Structural adaptation to regain fit
Structural Adaptation to Regain Fit Schools

  • Donaldson’s SARFIT Model (1995-96)

  • 5 Stages

  • An organization is in fit

  • There is a contingency change

  • The organization is in misfit & performance suffers

  • The organization does structural adaptation

  • The organization achieves a new fit and performance recovers


Change quotes
Change Quotes Schools

  • “A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices” – William James

  • “Life is change. Growth is optional. Choose wisely” Karen Kaiser Clark

  • “I can’t understand why people are frightened of new ideas. I’m afraid of the old ones.” John Cage

  • “All progress is precarious, and the solution of one problem brings us face to face with another problem” Martin Luther King, Jr.


Change quotes1
Change Quotes Schools

  • “It isn’t that they can’t see the solution. It is that they can’t see the problem.” G.K. Chesterton

  • “I never give them hell. I just tell the truth and they think its hell.” Harry S. Truman

  • “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” Gandhi

  • “Example is not the main thing in influencing others, it’s the only thing” Albert Schweitzer


Change quotes2
Change Quotes Schools

  • “I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow.” Woodrow Wilson

  • “You can’t jump a twenty-foot chasm in two ten-foot leaps” American Proverb

  • “We have to get everybody in the organization involved. If we do that, the best ideas rise to the top.” Jack Welch


Chaos theory
Chaos Theory Schools


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