THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Organization theorists, especially from sociology, provide insights relevant to studying international organizations as organizations. ORGANIZATIONS are created to solve problems that require collaborative action; they are not just mechanical tools doing what their founders envisioned. ORGANIZATIONS thus develop mechanisms for learning a new developments in the environment; they search for means of action and to decide what problems can and should be solved. Organizations theorists see organizations as open systems that are continually responding to the environment, developing and changing goals through negotiations among the dominant coalitions, and utilizing various technologies. Perrow, 1970.
THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Four concepts drawn from organization theory are particularly useful for studying IGOs, NGOs, and MNCs. These are; 1.Organizational Culture 2. Organizational Adaptation and Learning 3. Interorganizational Relations 4. Networks
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (IGOs) GLOBAL REGIONAL GLOBAL REGIONAL COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTH IGO AND NIGO • a permanent organization to carry on a continuing set of function • voluntary membership of eligible parties • a basic improvement stating goals, structure and methods of operation • a broadly representative consultative conference organ • a permanent secretariat to carry on continuous administrative, • research and information functions. • NGOs are voluntary organizations formed by individuals to perform a variety of functions and roles.
CHIEF FUNCTION OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION’S IS TO; • PROVIDE THE MEANS OF COOPERATION AMONG STATES • IN AREAS IN WHICH COOPERATION PROVIDES ADVANTAGES • FOR ALL OR A LARGE NUMBER OF NATIONS. SUBFUNCTION OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION’S IS TO; • PROVIDE MULTIPLE CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION AMONG GOVERNMENTS SO THAT AREAS ACCOMODATION MAYBE EXPLORED AND ANY ACCESS WILL BE AVAILABLE WHEN PROBLEMS ARISE. • THOSE MOST PROBABLY WILL BE THE CHANNEL OF DIPLOMACY AND PEACEFULL SETLEMENT. • IN ADDITION UN SPECIALIZED AGENCIES AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS PROVIDE MULTIPLE AND CONTINUOUS CONTACT POINTS THROUGH WHICH ACCOMODATION CAN BE EXERCISED.
AS OF 2008 THERE ARE; 194 NATION STATES (including Kosovo) 300 INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONs 5000 NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONs OPERATING IN INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM. ALMOST ALL THE LATTER HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED THE PAST CENTURY, MOSTLY AFTER WW II.
IGOs and NGOs CAN BE THOUGHT AS GLOBAL and REGIONAL IGOs GLOBAL REGIONAL Multipurpose - Alliance - Functional • UN • League of Nations • Universal Postal Union • International Telegram Union • World Health Organization • World Trade Organization • Hague Conference • Concert of Europe • ASEAN • EUROPEAN UNION • Organization of African Unity • Leage of Arap States • WEU • OPEC • NATO • Rhein and Danube River Co
IGOs and NGOs CAN BE THOUGHT AS GLOBAL and REGIONAL NGOs GLOBAL REGIONAL • Greenpeace • Doctor’s Without Borders • Friends of the Earth • Jurnalists Without Borders • Amnesty International • Human Rigths Watch • Part of the Some Global NGO for regional function, • UN credited NGOs • Millenium Forum • Peace,security,disarmament • The eradication of poverty • Human rights • Sustainable development and environment • The challenges of globalization • Strengthening the UN
THIRTY YEAR’S WAR WORLD WAR II WORLD WAR I CHART OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONs Hellenic Union 338 BC United Nations Hague System 1890- 1907 Attica-Delos Sea Union 476 BC Treaty of Presburg, 1806 End of Roman Empire Roman Empire Concert of Europe 1815 Atlantic Charter Peleponnesian Union 461 BC Yalta to San Fransisco Hanseatic Leageu 1356-1669 Treaty of Kadesh 1295 BC League of Nations Dumbarton Oaks onvers. The Treaty of Westphalia Regional International Organizations 1648 1918 1991 1945 • Peleponnesian Wars (441-445 BC) For 30 year Treaty between Delos Union and Spartan in 445 BC. • Tyucidides as first realist wrote his book “Peleponnesian War” • While Attica-Delos established in lead of Athens, Peleponnesian Union Sparta. • Macedon King Philippos II gathered all Greek city-states in Corinth Conference. Everey member states named “Helen”, Synedrion was common assembely to operate the • Union’s function. Synedrion was also a court. Hellenic Unon built up against Persian and defeated her at the end of the war. And Kallias Treaty was signed in 445 BC. • Hanseatic League comprised of 100-160 Northern European Cities, was formed to facilitate common monetary, customs union and trade. It was a system of regional federation. • Czar Nicholas II, convened two conferences to problem solving and preventing war. All European and non European states icluding Japan, Chine and Latin America.
CHART OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONs ECONOMIC ELIMINATING WAR Eliminating Poverty Disease Hunger POLITICAL COOPERATION SOCIAL TREATY of WESTPHALIA POST- WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY BEYOND- WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY PRE - WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY
WAR AS A STATE POLICY PARAMOUNT EVIL TO BE ELIMINATED Confucius(551-479 BC) Mo Ti (500’s BC) Desiderus Erasmus (1466-1536) W.Ellery Channing (1780-1842) Norman Angell (1874-1967) William Penn (1694 Jeremy Bentham (17 A Hobson (1902- Richard Cobden (1804-1865) Emeric Cruce(1623 Plato (427-347 BC Aristotle (384-322 BC St Augustine (354-430) Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Pierre Dubouis (1250-1322) Hugo Grotious (1538-1645) UNIVERSALIST-WORLD GOVERNMENT Dante Alighieri Cicero Seneca Abbe de St Pierre (1700’s Emanuel Kant (1795 William Ladd (1840
PLATO ; State should not neglect its military defense, but the ideal state would be an isolated, self sufficient unit with a little dependence on the rest of the world as possible ARISTOTLE ; He generally opposed war except in self defense, but because he believed that some people were suited only to serve as slaves, so he justified the conquest of inferior people. ST AUGUSTINE ; He disapproved of war of conquest but accepted war of defense. The church during the middle age generally accepted war under certain conditions. For example war against infidel were approved, but among chiristians were undesireable. THOMAS AQUINAS; Acceptance war is inhuman but crusaders. DANTE – CICERO - SENECA; Service to the world socıety, , universal and superior law of justice.
ABBE DE SAINT PIERRE ; Both advice that establishment of general parliament or assembly to settle all disputes by a three-fourths vote, with collective sancstions including armed forces. PIERRE DUBOIS; He suggest Christion Ruler under French leadership. War should be prohibited among christians but encourages against infidel. EMMANUEL KANT ; Main element of him a federation open to voluntarily membership of any state, a congress to settle dispute, no standing armies, free movement from one country to another. WILLIAM LADD ; “Essay on a Congress Nations” He takes the US and Swiss government as a mode. He advocated the establishment of a congress of nation and Court of Nations with legislative and judicial. RICHARD COBDEN ; His suggest is interdependence of states. Universal organization not limited to christian ruler, promotion of trade.
INTEGRATION Integration is defined as the voluntary linking in the economic domain of two or more formerly independent states to the extend that authority over key areas of domestic regulation and policy is shifted to the supranational level.
REGIONAL INTEGRATION Regional integration is the process of providing common rules, regulations, and policies for a region.
WHAT IS REGION ? Groupings of countries that interact well beyond what is expected on the basis of countries relative contributions to world import and exports. If region has boundaries, these boundaries are usually vast grey in tones and shades rather than black and white. (Richard Savage and Carl Deutsch, 1960)
THREE CRITERIA FOR THE DEFINITION OF REGIONS; • PHYSICAL PROXIMITY AND SEPARATENESS, • - Although related with the geography, even today it does not • follow automatically that the political and cultural patterns • shaped by geography have been eroded. • INTERDEPENDENCE • - As economic terms, interdependency refers to interconnectedness of • among countries. A region in this sense is a zone where there is a • high density of economic transactions relative to other units. • HOMOGENITY • - A large number of variables fit within this framework; • similarity of of values, of economic systems, of political systems, • of way of life, of level of economic development and so on. (Bruse Russett, International Regions and the International System, 1967)
INTEGRATION Most political scientists studying integration have been primarily interested in understanding the institutional and policy dimensions of integration. They have sought to specify the political context in which integration occurs and have provided insightful accounts of the process of integration.
INTEGRATION The critical question related with integration is; Which forces drive the process of voluntary integration? There are basicly three types of so-called explanations, mostly taking into consideration of European Union. These are not wrong, but fail basic tests of scientific inference. At least they are insufficient.
INTEGRATION The critical question related with integration is; Which forces drive the process of voluntary integration? First; It is said that politicians, hounted by the horrors of the Second World War, were naturally driven to devise a novel structure of European governance capable of eradicating the very roots of intra-European conflicts.
INTEGRATION The critical question related with integration is; Which forces drive the process of voluntary integration? Second; Charismatic leaders, it is alleged, managed to transcend the narrow-mindedness and selfishness of domestic pressure groups hostile to integration and European unity.
INTEGRATION The critical question related with integration is; Which forces drive the process of voluntary integration? Third; An ever-popular third explanation refers to changed preferences. The timing of a new application for membership, it is claimed, is attributable to the pressure from growing segments of society desirous of being connected to the larger “Euro-culture.”
TYPES OF INTEGRATION At various times, social scientists have searched for more rigorious explanations of economic and political integration. In political science, three major analytical framework for understanding integration. Functionalism, Neofunctionalism, Intergovermantalism.
TYPES OF INTEGRATION Economists who study regional integration look primarily at market relationship among goods and factors of production within a region and assume away the relevance of institutional and political forces. They are interested in the welfare effects of integration. Customs union theory Optimal currency areatheory The fiscal federalism theory
TYPES OF INTEGRATION One explanation of integration in political science is functionalism. It refers global integration based on world peace. Peace is more likely working together in workshops and marketplace than by signing pacts in chancelleries. Other explanation of integration in political science is neofunctionalism. It refers to regional integration. It bring a critics to functionalism which functionalism as a teleologic. Intergovernmentalism is an alternative approach to integration in political science. Unlike neofunctionalism it assigns a central role to heads of states.
WEAKNESSES OF THESE EXPLANATIONS functionalism. neofunctionalism. Intergovernmentalism
TYPES OF INTEGRATION Customs union theory seeks to understand the welfare implications of integration in terms of trade creation, trade diversion, and terms of trade. Customs union theory seeks to understand the welfare implications of integration in terms of trade creation, trade diversion, and terms of trade. Optimal currency areatheory specifies conditions under which integration in the monetary domain is economically efficient. Optimal currency areatheory specifies conditions under which integration in the monetary domain is economically efficient. The fiscal federalism theory aIso seeks to issues of regional integration.
WEAKNESSES OF EXPLANATIONS Customs union theory Customs union theory Optimal currency areatheory Optimal currency areatheory The fiscal federalism theory
THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO INTEGRATION Economical Approaches Political Approaches Functionalism Intergovermentalism Customs Union Theory Fiscal Federalism Neofunctionalism Optimal Currency Area
THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO INTEGRATION Economical Approaches Political Approaches Functionalism Intergovermentalism Customs Union Theory Fiscal Federalism Neofunctionalism Optimal Currency Area Davit Mitrany 1943 Andrew Moravcsik 1993 Earns Hass 1958 A Working Peace System Preferences & Power in the EU Community Uniting of Europe
THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO INTEGRATION Economical Approaches Political Approaches Functionalism Intergovermentalism Customs Union Theory Fiscal Federalism Neofunctionalism Optimal Currency Area Davit Mitrany 1943 Andrew Moravcsik 1993 Jacop Viner 1950 Earns Hass 1958 Robert Mundall 1953 A Working Peace System Preferences & Power in the EU Community The Customs Union A Theory of Optimal Currency Area Uniting of Europe
FUNCTIONALISM Main proponent, (Roman academician) Davit Mitrany, The book, A Working Peace System
FUNCTIONALISM Fundemental aspect of functionalism or functional method is that “sovereignty can not be transfered effectively through a formula only through a function”.
FUNCTIONALISM Functionalism begins with the assumption that; supranationality is the only method available to states to secure maximum welfare and then proceeds to provide an insightful account of how integration evolves using concepts such as functional spillover, updating of common interests , and subnational and supranational group dynamics.
FUNCTIONALISM His assumptions is based on that nation states capabilities doing things efficient less than the capabilities of international organizations.
FUNCTIONALISM “problem of our time is not how to keep nations peacefully apart but how to bring them actively together” Peace “is more likely to grow through doing things together in workshops and marketplace than by singing pacts in chancelleries”
FUNCTIONALISM Mitrany claim that nationalism is threat to world peace. He insists that dependencies among nations based on mutually cooperation and beneficiary agricultural, health, transportation and other areas like these should be reverse from national level to international.
FUNCTIONALISM Coactivity rather than national coexistance defines the ideal of peace. He put his faith “not in protected peace but in a working peace”.
FUNCTIONALISM Functional cooperation does not start from the political but from the low-key economic and social plane such as the joint management of scarce resources, unemployment, commodity price fluctuations, labor standarts, and public health.
FUNCTIONALISM • Functionalism is applicable at both regional and global levels and has been important in explaining the evolution of the European Union as a process of economic integration, gradually spilling over into limited political integration.
FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION Functional Integration, that is, the provision of common rules, regulations, and policies embodied in an integrated governance structure, may begin with exchance rate coordination.
FUNCTIONALISM The weaknesses of functionalism; 1. It is not properly speaking a theory of integration but rather than a normative method. 2. Integration is in fact sought to secure peace, is not fully compelling. (Why were not all European countries participating in the peace-building effort from the begining?)
Comparing Functionalism to Realism John McCormick compares functionalism's fundamental principles with realism's thus:
NEOFUNCTIONALISM • One of its protagonists is Ernst B. Haas, a US-political scientist. His book is “The Uniting of Europe”. • Unlike previous theories of integration, functionalism;neofunctionalism declared to be non-normative and tried to describe and explain the process of regional integration based on empirical data.
NEOFUNCTIONALISM • In a significant departure from functionalism, it shifts its analytical focus from the teleology, a working peace system, to the utilitarian dimension of the functional method. This makes it gain analytical clarity and powerful implications.
NEOFUNCTIONALISM Neofunctionalist approach is concerned with explaining “how and why nation-states cease to be wholly sovereign, how and why voluntarily mingle, merge, and mix with their neighbors so as to lose the factual attributes a sovereignty while acquiring new techniques for resolving conflicts between themselves.
NEOFUNCTIONALISM • Neofunctionalism, describes a process” whereby political actors in several distinct national settings are persuaded to shift their loyalties, expectations, and political activities towards a new and larger center, whose institutions possess or demand jurisdiction over the pre-existing states.
NEOFUNCTIONALISM Neofunctionalism’s main analytical attributes are; • The actors Interest groups, PP – NATION STATE – SupranationalRI • The motives Good Europeans are not the main creators of the community • The process Spillover( functional, political ), upgrading common interests • The context Against functionalism, for neofunctionalism economy and politics can not be separable.
NEOFUNCTIONALISM • BACKGROUND CONDITIONS • PROCESS CONDITIONS • CONDITIONS THAT ARE LIKELY TO ENCOURAGE OR DISCOURAGE TASK EXPANSION AS A COMPOSITE THEORY, NEOFUNCTIONALISM HAS THREE COMPONENTS (Hass, and Schimitter, 1964)
NEOFUNCTIONALISM • BACKGROUND CONDITIONS • Neofunctionalism argued that integration was most likely emerge to first among countries with a certain type of domestic environment; liberal democratic countries with advance capitalist economies, differentiated social structures, and highly pluralistic interest group structures. • In these societies class conflicts were to be muted, ethnic rivalries less intense and warfare an obsolescent institution. • Such countries would have much to gain from an expansion of capitalism to the regional level. AS A COMPOSITE THEORY, NEOFUNCTIONALISM HAS THREE COMPONENTS