LSP_MAIN Language Structures Introduction Activity Main Teaching Points Practice Practice I Practice II Practice III Practice IV Practice V
LSP1_1 Language Structures Introduction Activity Have the students give response to the given statements. • would have liked to (do): used with the first person to express the speaker’s wish that was not fulfilled. • I intended to go skating with you yesterday but I couldn’t because my mother didn’t let me. Response: I would have liked to go skating with you yesterday, but my mother didn’t let me.
LSP1_2 Language Structures Introduction Activity 2) I meant to sit in on Professor Wang’s class this morning but I didn’t because I had an important meeting to attend. Response: I would have liked to sit in on Professor Wang’s class this morning, but I had an important meeting to attend. 3) I planned to lend you my MP3, but I didn’t, because it was out of order. Response: I would have liked to lend you my MP3, but it was out of order.
LSP1_3 Language Structures Introduction Activity 2. should / ought to + perfect infinitive, indicating a past obligation that was not fulfilled. • The exhibition was a good one. All of us visited it except • John. Response: John should / ought to have come with us. 2) We all learned a lot from the lecture, but Li didn’t attend it. Response: Li ought to / should have attended the lecture.
LSP1_4 Language Structures Introduction Activity 3) The engineer went to the research institute without an umbrella and was caught in the rain. Response: The engineer ought to / should have taken an umbrella with him.
LSP1_5 Language Structures Introduction Activity 3. needn’t + perfect infinitive, indicating something that was unnecessarily done in the past. • I wrote a summary in more than five hundred words. But the • teacher only asked for 200 words. Response: I needn’t have written such a long summary. 2) Lin answered all the ten questions in the test paper. But we were only required to answer eight of them. Response: Lin needn’t have answered all the ten questions in the test paper.
LSP1_6 Language Structures Introduction Activity 3) Mary went to the station an hour before the train started. Response: Mary needn’t have gone to the station so early.
LSP1_7 Language Structures Introduction Activity 4. may / might +perfect infinitive, indicating speculations about past actions. 1) Where is Susan? I want to go to the canteen with her. Response: She may / might have gone there already. 2) It’s a fortnight since Sun went to the South and we haven’t got a word from him. I wonder if he’s forgotten us all. Response: He may / might have been very busy with his work there.
LSP1_8 Language Structures Introduction Activity 3) I’ve been looking for my bicycle key for three days, and it’s still nowhere to be found. Response: You may / might have lost it.
LSP1_9 Language Structures Introduction Activity 5. can’t / couldn’t + perfect infinitive, indicating negative deduction about past actions. • Where is my typewriter? Someone must have stolen it last • night. Response: It was here a moment ago. It couldn’t have been stolen last night. 2) Keith ought to be here now. Perhaps he’s lost his way. Response: I told him how to come and I even drew him a map. He can’t have lost his way.
LSP1_10 Language Structures Introduction Activity 3) A man answered the phone. I suppose it was her husband. Response: But her husband hasn’t come back from abroad yet. It couldn’t have been her husband.
LSP1_11 Language Structures Introduction Activity 6. must + perfect infinitive, indicating affirmative deduction about past actions. 1) The film he saw last night was wonderful. Response: He must have enjoyed seeing it. 2) He looks tired, doesn’t he? Response: He must have worked hard. / He must have stayed up late last night. 3) James has checked all the figures twice over, but he can’t get the correct answer. Response: James must have made a mistake somewhere.
LSP2_1 Language Structures Main Teaching Points Modal auxiliaries • would + perfect infinitive used to express “unfulfilled • wish” • 2. should / ought to + perfect infinitive used to express “unfulfilled obligation” • 3. needn’t + perfect infinitive expressing “unnecessary past actions” • 4.may / might + perfect infinitive used to express “speculations about past actions”
LSP2_1 Language Structures Main Teaching Points Modal auxiliaries 5. can / could not + perfect infinitive used to express “negative deduction about past actions” 6. must + perfect infinitive used to express “affirmative deduction about past actions” 7. may / might as well used with the second person pronoun expressing “suggestions”
LSP2_2 Language Structures Main Teaching Points Modal auxiliaries • would + perfect infinitive used to express “unfulfilled • wish” • 2. should / ought to + perfect infinitive used to express “unfulfilled obligation” • 3. needn’t + perfect infinitive expressing “unnecessary past actions” • 4.may / might + perfect infinitive used to express “speculations about past actions”
LSP2_3 Language Structures Main Teaching Points I would have liked to sign up, but I sprained my ankle. Sheshould / ought to have had more oral practice during the term. She needn’t have learned all the dialogues by heart. He may / might have gone without you. She can’t / couldn’t have gone to the library. She must have gone to the language lab. You may / might as welluse my bike.
LSP3_1 Practice Practice I Directions: Listen to the recording and complete the dialogues. Then make similar dialogues with your partner by using the cues. A: Everybody signed up for the sports meeting, but I didn’t see your name. B: I didn’t sign up. A: Why not? I would have liked to, but I sprained my ankle. B: ■
LSP3_3 Practice Practice I 【Cues of Practice I】
LSP3-4 Practice Practice II A: Lin failed in her oral English test again. B: She should / ought to have had more oral practice all through the term. A: She learnt all the dialogues in the textbook by heart, though. B: But that’s no use. As a matter of fact, she needn’t have done that.
LSP3_5 Practice Practice II 【Cues of Practice II】
LSP3_6 Practice Practice III I wonder where Zhang can be. A: B: Did you have an appointment with him? A: Yes. He said he’d meet me at half past eight and take me to the public library. It’s about a quarter to nine now. B: He may / might have gone without you. A: Maybe, but he ought to have told me so.
LSP3_7 Practice Practice III 【Cues of Practice III】
LSP3_8 Practice Practice IV A: Is Liu in the gym? No, I don’t think so. B: A: Can / Could she have gone to the library? B: No, she can’t / couldn’t have gone there. I just saw her going out with a tape in her hand. A: In that case, she must have gone to the language lab.
LSP3_9 Practice Practice IV 【Cues of Practice IV】
LSP3_8 Practice Practice V A: It’s getting very late. I must be off. B: Oh, I didn’t realize it was so late. A: I hope I’ll be able to catch the last bus home. B: Why don’t you use my bike? You might as well. You may / might as well use my bike. The last bus might have gone.
LSP3_9 Practice Practice V 【Cues of Practice V】
Dialogue_MAIN Dialogue I Dialogue Conversational Tips Oral Practice Role Play Dialogue II Phrases, Sentences and Expressions Dialogue Oral Practice
Dialogues1_1 Dialogue I Dialogue Pollution Control So you’re from London, Dave. Some time ago I read an interesting story about London fog. Oh yeah, I think I know the one you mean. It’s about a blind woman leading a man with good eyesight to his home in a dense fog. That’s right. Since then, I’ve always thought of London as a city full of fog. It must be terrible living there. A: B: A:
Dialogues1_2 Dialogue I Dialogue That’s already history. London is no longer like that. The yellow black winter fog has disappeared since the Clean Air Act wasenforcedin 1956. Since then the average winter sunshine has doubled. And the Thamesis swarming with fish. Wow! I wish we could do away with air pollution and dust here. It’s been tormenting us for years. It’s not as bad as that, is it? I’ve found this city clean. Ah, but this is a suburban area. Go to the industrial zone and you’ll bebothered by the air and water pollution. B: A: B: A:
Dialogues1_3 Dialogue I Dialogue The factories must have been set up a long time ago. Old factories are usually not equipped with pollution control devices. That was the same in my country. It took us many years to make our industrial cities clean and healthy. But the trouble we have is that even some of the newer factories didn’t include pollution control measures when they were built. Besides, quite a number of factories were built in the middle ofresidential areas. That really makes life intolerable. New factories should’ve been built out of town. B: A: B:
Dialogues1_4 Dialogue I Dialogue Yes. They shouldn’t have been built in an urban area. And they should’ve been equipped with treatment devices to control smoke, dust, and water pollution. And the noise pollution in the city should also be controlled. Every time I go downtown, I’m irritated by all the noises in the streets. The blowing horns? A: B: A:
Dialogues1_5 Dialogue I Dialogue Yes. The motorists blow their horns whenever they like. Especially the taxis and scooters, they have added considerably to this noise pollution. They totally ignore the city restrictions on horn blowing. They don’t seem to consider noise harmful to humans. Well, more and more people have come to know how harmful noise disturbance is. In some cities in China attempts have been made to reduce street noise and they’ve been quite successful. That’s good. In my country it’s against the law to blow car horns in any street in town. B: A: B:
Dialogues1_6 Dialogue I Dialogue A: B: A: I think we ought to make stricter laws to that effect, too, and more importantly, to enforce them! Perhaps it’s difficult to bring pollution completely under control all at once. It takes time, and it takes money. Fortunately, our government has been working hard to raise people’s awareness of the importance of environmental protection and has taken drastic measures to control pollution. I’m looking forward to living in a much cleaner and healthier city in the not too distant future.
Tip1 Dialogue I Conversational Tips The following are conversational tips related to this dialogue. Get yourself familiar with them, as they are helpful for you in verbal communication. 1. How to open a conversation and move it naturally to an intended topic: Usually people open a conversation in an indirect way by asking for information or an opinion about something related to the intended topic. The question usually is not a personal one. It is safe for people to start a conversation with such topics as weather, hobbies, sports, travel, entertainment, current, events, etc.
Tip2 Dialogue I Conversational Tips A: So you’re from London, Dave. Some time ago I read an interesting story about London fog. Other expressions:It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it? ...I hear you’re going to France next summer ...I bet you had a good time in Japan ...Do you sometimes go to see baseball? ...
Tip3 Dialogue I Conversational Tips 2. How to make a conversation coherent or closely and logically linked: Usually people use a lot of demonstrative words, conjunctions and attitude words to help make a conversation closely and logically linked. See the following examples:
Tip4 Dialogue I Conversational Tips Oh, yeah, I think I know the one you mean ...That’s right. Since then ...That’s already history ...It’s not as bad as that ...But the trouble we have ...That really makes life intolerable...
Dialogue_Words 1_2 enforce:v. to make people obey a rule or law e.g.: Parking restrictions will be strictly enforced.
Dialogue_Words 1_2 swarming with: to be full of a moving crowd of people or animals e.g.: The museum was swarming with tourists.
Dialogue_Words 1_2 do away with: to get rid of something or stop using something e.g.: Computerization has enabled us to do away with a lot of paperwork.
Dialogue_Words 1_2 torment: v. to make someone suffer a lot, especially mentally e.g.: Seth was tormented by feelings of guilt.
Dialogue_Words 1_2 suburban: adj. related to a suburb, or in a suburb
Dialogue_Words 1_2 bother: v. to annoy someone, especially by interrupting them when they are trying to do something e.g.: Would it bother you if I put on some music?
Dialogue_Words 1_3 residential:adj. a residential part of a town consists of private houses, with no offices or factories
Dialogue_Words 1_5 restriction:n. a rule or law that limits or controls what people can do e.g.: The law imposed new financial restrictions on private companies.
Dialogue_Words 1_6 drastic: adj. extreme and sudden e.g.: Drastic changes are needed if environmental catastrophe is to be avoided.
Dialogue_Notes 1_1 It must be terrible living there. — Living there must be terrible. The introductory it is a formal subject, whereas the -ing participle living is the real subject. Another example, It is great fun boating on the lake.
Dialogue_Notes 1_2 the Clean Air Act — This was the result of the recommendations made by the Beaver Committee which was set up to inquire into the question of urban pollution in Britain. The committee was so named because its chairman was Sir Hugh Beaver.
Dialogue_Notes 1_2 theThames / temz / is swarming with fish — the River Thames is full of fish that move about busily. The names of rivers are preceded by the definite article “the”, e.g.: the Yangzi River, the Yellow River, the Hudson River, the Mississippi River.
Dialogue_Notes 1_2 Wow! — Wow is an exclamatory word showing great surprise or showing that one is greatly impressed by something.