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Food Safety. Preparation course for managers seeking certification Revised: August 2009. Prepared by:. Angela M. Fraser, Ph.D. Associate Professor/Food Safety Specialist Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634. Acknowledgements.

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Food safety

Food Safety

Preparation course for managers seeking certification

Revised: August 2009

Prepared by
Prepared by:

Angela M. Fraser, Ph.D.

Associate Professor/Food Safety Specialist

Clemson University

Clemson, SC 29634


The following individuals contributed to the successful development of this slide set:

  • Susan Morgan, Brunswick County Extension Center, NC

  • Marsha Smith, Sampson County Extension Center, NC

  • Susan Condlin, Lee County Extension Center, NC

  • Julia Nunnery, Lee County Health Department, NC

    The material in this slide set, unless otherwise identified, is based upon work supported by the Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under special project number 2003-51110-01715, the National Integrated Food Safety Initiative of the Integrated Research, Education, and Extension Competitive Grants Program. For more information, contact Dr. Angela Fraser at 919-515-9150 or at [email protected] and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability through Clemson University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.

Course content
Course Content

This course was designed to help prepare individuals to become certified food protection managers.

  • Based on the U.S. Food Code, which was authored by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  • Chapter 2: Management and Personnel outlines the requirements for manager certification.

  • The Food Code is available at:

Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness

Foodborne illness

  • An illness caused by eating contaminated foods or beverages. 

    Foodborne illness outbreak

  • The occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from eating a common food.

    Each year there are an estimated:

  • 76 million cases of foodborne illness

  • 323,914 hospitalizations

  • 5,194 deaths


Sources of contamination
Sources of Contamination

  • More than 250 different types of foodborne illness have been identified. Most illnesses caused by microorganisms:

    • bacteria

    • viruses

    • parasites

  • Other sources of illness include:

    • biological hazards

    • chemical hazards

    • physical hazards


Cost of foodborne illness
Cost of Foodborne Illness

  • $10 billion - $83 billion each year

  • The National Restaurant Association estimates an outbreak can cost a business about $75,000. Specific costs:

    • Lost business

    • Lawsuits

    • Medical costs


High risk persons
High Risk Persons

People more likely to get foodborne illness:

  • Infants preschool age children (4 years and younger)

  • pregnant women

  • elderly – 65 years and older

  • immunocompromised

  • individuals taking specific medications


Contaminated food
Contaminated Food

  • Contaminated food can cause foodborne illness. Any food can become contaminated.

  • Some foods support the growth of bacteria. These are called potentially hazardous foods (PHF) or time-temperature control for safety (TCS) foods.

  • A PHF/TCS food:

    • is typically low acid, moist, and contains protein.

    • requires temperature control to prevent the growth of bacteria.




Potentially Hazardous or Not?

Potentially hazardous or not
Potentially Hazardous or Not?

Sliced apples

Beef stew


Potentially hazardous or not1
Potentially Hazardous or Not?


Cake with whipped cream and strawberry


Potentially hazardous or not2
Potentially Hazardous or Not?

Macaroni and cheese

Baked potato


Potentially hazardous or not3
Potentially Hazardous or Not?

Crisp-cooked bacon



Potentially hazardous or not4
Potentially Hazardous or Not?

Commercially processed garlic in oil

Canned salsa


Potentially hazardous or not5
Potentially Hazardous or Not?


Sliced watermelon


Potentially hazardous or not6
Potentially Hazardous or Not?

Grilled tuna salad sandwich

Steamed rice


Food safety hazards
Food Safety Hazards

  • A hazard is a biological, chemical, or physical contaminant that can cause a health risk.

  • Examples of food safety hazards:

    • Biological

    • Chemical

    • Physical


Who s responsible for food safety
Who’s Responsible for Food Safety?

  • The foodservice manager is responsible for the safety of food in a foodservice establishment.

  • The manager must:

    • keep food safe and wholesome throughout the establishment at all times.

    • demonstrate his/her knowledge by:

      • complying with the U.S. Food Code,

      • becoming a certified food protection manager, or

      • correctly answering an inspector's questions.

    • monitor the food handling practices in the operation.


Risk factors
Risk Factors

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have identified five risk factors for foodborne illness:

  • Food from unapproved and unsafe sources

  • Improper holding time and temperature

  • Poor personal hygiene

  • Improper cooking

  • Cross-contamination